At the time of Ferdinand Pius's death in 1960, the oldest brother, Carlos (1870–1949) was deceased, but had left descendants. The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. The kingdom was the largest sovereign state by population and size in Italy prior to Italian unification, comprising Sicily and all of Peninsula Italy south of the Papal States, covering most of the area of today's Mezzogiorno. The dispute remains unresolved. Title held from birth. The Teatro Reale di San Carlo commissioned by the Bourbon King Charles VII of Naples who wanted to grant Naples a new and larger theatre to replace the old, dilapidated, and too-small Teatro San Bartolomeo of 1621. The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments and Sicily was divided into seven departments. In the following years the Neapolitan countryside saw sporadic local insurrections. Son of Prince Antoine. However, the Neapolitan administration had changed from conciliatory to reactionary policies. That same month, a revolution broke out in Palermo, Sicily, but was quickly suppressed. "Before the Southern Question: 'Native' Ideas on Backwardness and Remedies in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, 1815–1849." A peaceful solution was eventually negotiated by France.. Title held from her father-in-law's ascension to her husband's ascension in 1825, Title held from her father-in-law's ascension to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1837 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1844 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1850 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1859 to her husband's ascension three months later, Title held from her marriage in 1861 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1868 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1897 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1901 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1907 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1923 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1916 to her divorce in 1925, Title held from her marriage in 1927 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1932 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1936 to her death, Title held from her marriage in 1949 to her death, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 20:53. in, Pinto, Carmine. By the rule of primogeniture, headship would normally pass through Carlos to his son Alfonso. The name of Bourbon-Two Sicilies comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Two Sicilies) from the title King of the Two Sicilies, itself a merger of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples. Since 1861, and similarly to members of the House of Bourbon-Parma, the style Prince(ss) of Bourbon-Two Sicilies has been used for and by members of this family to highlight their membership in the House of Bourbon. Ranieri contested Alfonso's claim arguing that Carlos had renounced any claim to the Two Sicilies succession on the part of himself and his heirs when he executed the Act of Cannes in 1900 in anticipation of his marriage the next year to Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, heiress presumptive to the Spanish throne. The annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies completed the first phase of Italian unification, and the new Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861. Urban road conditions were to the best European standards, by 1839, the main streets of Naples were gas-lit. After Frederick IV was forced to abdicate, the French took power, and Louis reigned as Louis III of Naples for three years. Princesses of the Two Sicilies (since 1816), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Line of succession to the former throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Carlos, Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta, Prince Pedro, Duke of Castro, Duke of Noto, Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta, Princess Maria-Carolina, Duchess of Calabria, Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies, Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil and Countess of Aquila, Isabella, Princess of Asturias and Countess of Girgenti, Maria Ludwiga Theresia, Duchess of Calabria, "Riconciliazione in Casa Borbone: unità per l'Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio? Francis I or Francis II, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.. The Literacy rate was just 14.4% in 1861. 1926-2008. The Kingdom pursued an economic policy of protectionism; the country's economy was mainly based on agriculture, the cities, especially Naples - with over 400,000 inhabitants Italy's largest - 'a center of consumption rather than of production' (Santore p. 163) and home to poverty most expressed by the masses of Lazzaroni, the poorest class.  However, until the Italian unification, the railway development was highly limited. Administratively, Naples and Sicily remained separate units; in 1858 the Neapolitan Postal Service issued her first postage stamps; that of Sicily followed in 1859. The first railways and iron-suspension bridges in Italy were developed in the south, as was the first overland electric telegraph cable. The war declared on Austria in April 1848, under pressure of public sentiment, had been an event on paper only. Welcome to Camilla of Bourbon official site. Moreover, in September 1847 a uprising saw insurrectionists crossing from mainland Calabria over to Sicily before government forces were able to suppress them. Efforts of reconciliation was carried out in 2014, but have been followed by continuing arguing within the family as Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, insists on a break with tradition by transmitting succession to his eldest daughter. On the orders of King Ferdinand I, who used the services of Antonio Niccolini, to rebuild the opera house within ten months as a traditional horseshoe-shaped auditorium with 1,444 seats, and a proscenium, 33.5m wide and 30m high. Right here at FameChain. In 1130 the Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as with the Maltese Islands. In 1816 he annulled the constitution and Sicily became fully reintegrated into the new state, which was now officially called the Regno delle Due Sicilie (Kingdom of Two Sicilies). From 1815 to 1822, Gioachino Rossini was the house composer and artistic director of the royal opera houses, including the San Carlo. The second largest city, Palermo, was the third largest in Italy. All the rails of the old railways that went from the south to as far as Bologna were built in Mongiana. Ferdinando. In Calabria, the Fonderia Ferdinandea was a large foundry where cast iron was produced. Road conditions in the interior and hinterland areas of the kingdom made internal trade difficult.  From 1516, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor became the first King of Spain, both Naples and Sicily came under direct Spanish rule. In October 1815, Joachim Murat landed in Calabria, in an attempt to regain his kingdom. Stendhal attended the second night of the inauguration and wrote: "There is nothing in all Europe, I won't say comparable to this theatre, but which gives the slightest idea of what it is like..., it dazzles the eyes, it enraptures the soul...". 1869-1960. English: The Bourbons of The Two Sicilies is a cadet Italian branch of the House of Bourbon.It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. As registered in the 1827 census, for the Neapolitan (continental) part of the kingdom, 1,475,314 of the male population were listed as Husbandmen which traditionally consisted of three classes the Borgesi (or yeomanry), the Inquilani (or small-farmers) and the Contadini (or peasantry), along with 65,225 listed as shepherds. Find out about Prince Carlo Of Bourbon-Two Sicilies's family tree, family history, ancestry, ancestors, genealogy, relationships and affairs! Lawlessness in the countryside was aggravated by the problem of administrative corruption. Surname information is crowd-sourced; the Geni community would be grateful if you helped update this page with information about the Bourbon-Two Sicilies surname. Prince Ranieri of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro succeeded as Grand Master and Head of the Royal House, to his brother H.R.H. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Neapolitan: Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; Sicilian: Regnu dî Dui Sicili; Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie; Spanish: Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. Founded in 1770, it employed 1600 workers in 1860 and closed in 1880. The stage was 34.5m deep. Title held from birth. The current headship of this family is in dispute. 1861 - End of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In the 1840s, clandestine political pamphlets circulated, evading censorship. Niccolini embellished in the inner of the bas-relief depicting "Time and the Hour". . King Francis I (1825-1830) died after having visited Paris, where he witnessed the 1830 revolution. The region of Basilicata also had several mills in Potenza and San Chirico Raparo, where cotton, wool and silk were processed. The first Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples (called the kingdom of peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442. A major problem in the Kingdom was the distribution of land property - most of it concentrated in the hands of a few families, the Landed Oligarchy. The first steamboat with screw propulsion known in the Mediterranean Sea was the "Giglio delle Onde", with mail delivery and passenger transport purposes after 1847. In 1820 a revolution planned by Carbonari and their supporters, aimed at obtaining a written constitution (the Spanish constitution of 1812), did not work out as planned. See more ideas about two sicilies, bourbon, spanish royalty. liters of wine for the principal part home consumed. Discourse among the Bourbon-Two-Sicilies It is not difficult to comprehend why the Duke of Castro would fiddle with the succession to the headship of the house of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and name his elder daughter, Princess Maria Carolina, Duchess of Palermo, as his heir, thus establishing a … In 1860–61 with influence from Great Britain and Gladstone's propaganda, the kingdom was absorbed into the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. An coup attempted in 1828 and aimed at forcing the promulgation of a constitution was suppressed by Neapolitan troops (the Austrian troops had left the previous year). Eventually the city of Naples would be equipped with street lighting and in 1839 the railroad from Naples to Portici was put into operation, measures that were visible signs of progress. Children and male-line grandchildren of the King of the Two Sicilies bore the title Prince(ss) Royal of the Two Sicilies with the style of Royal Highness. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. What used to be the Kingdom of Two Sicilies became Italy's Mezzogiorno. The Sicilian mines were able to satisfy most of the global demand for sulfur. The next surviving brother was Ranieri (1883–1973). Political repression then only intensified. Announcement against desertion, issued in 1849 by Ferdinand II of Bourbon, King of Naples. Luisa Carlotta of Bourbon (October 24, 1804 – January 29, 1844), Princess the Two Sicilies, Infanta of Spain, was a daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies. . King Francis II (since 1859) withdrew to the fortified port of Gaeta, where he surrendered and abdicated in February 1861. Also, southern landscape was mainly mountainous making the process of building railways quite difficult, as building railway tunnels was much harder at the time. An offer in 1822 from Domenico Barbaja, the impresario of the San Carlo, which followed the composer's ninth opera, led to Gaetano Donizetti's move to Naples and his residency there which lasted until the production of Caterina Cornaro in January 1844. In the mainland parts of the Kingdom, the power and influence of both nobility and clergy had been greatly reduced, though at the expense of law and order. "The 1860 disciplined Revolution. The Vienna Congress had granted Austria the right to station troops in the kingdom, and Austria, as well as Russia and Prussia, insisted that no written constitution was to be granted to the kingdom. It descends from the Capetian dynasty in legitimate male line through Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, a younger grandson of Louis XIV of France (1638–1715) who established the Bourbon dynasty in Spain in 1700 … On this site you will find Her Royal Highness Princess Camilla’s profile as well as her Family’s with several activities H.R.H.  The document recognised both branches as members of the same house, committed both to pursue further reconciliation and concord, meanwhile recognising the titles then claimed by each branch. The Reali ferriere ed Officine di Mongiana was an iron foundry and weapons factory. On June 17 1965 he reformed and promulgated the new Statutes of the Order; at the same time he prepared and promulgated, with a Magistral Decree, the heraldic rules to enter the Order. Ferdinand IV became Ferdinand I. Gladstone's letters provoked sensitive reactions in the whole of Europe and helped to cause its diplomatic isolation prior to the invasion and annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies by the Kingdom of Sardinia, with the following foundation of modern Italy.  This was because the kingdom could count on a very large and efficient merchant navy, which was able to compensate for the need for railways.  In all, Naples presented 51 of Donizetti's operas. The treaty of Casalanza restored Ferdinand IV of Bourbon to the throne of Naples and the island of Sicily (where the constitution of 1812 virtually had disempowered him) was returned to him. Beatrice di Borbone delle Due Sicilie.jpg 908 × 1,557; 459 KB The capital of this kingdom was Palermo — which is on the island of Sicily. From the marriage two daughters were born: H.R.H. , During the reign of Charles I of Anjou (1266–1285), the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302) split the kingdom. ", New Rules of Succession decreed for the Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Associazione per i Siti Reali e le Residenze Borboniche, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_Bourbon-Two_Sicilies&oldid=989061165, Articles needing additional references from April 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Prince Francisco Armando Federico De La Cruz De Bourbon. 1896-1968 > Ferdinando. Ferdinand Pius had seven younger brothers. This was precipitated when King Ferdinand II granted a monopoly of the sulfur industry to a French company, in violation of an 1816 trade agreement with Britain. His descendants occupied the joint throne (renamed "Kingdom of the Two Sicilies" in 1816) until 1860, claimed it thereafter from exile, and constitute the extant Bourbon-Two Sicilies family. Ferdinand II then re-united the two areas into one kingdom. The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is an Italian cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons that ruled Southern Italy and Sicily for more than a century in the 18th and 19th centuries. Which had served the city well, especially after Scarlatti had moved there in 1682 and had begun to create an important opera centre which existed well into the 1700s. Rebels from Naples occupied Benevento and Pontecorvo, two enclaves belonging to the Papal States. The complex also included a school for train drivers, and naval engineers and, thanks to this school, the kingdom was able to replace the English personnel who had been necessary until then. Clerics could inspect schools and had veto power over appointments of teachers, who were mostly part of the clergy anyhow. The figures above show that the population of the countryside rose at a faster rate than that of the city of Naples herself, a rather odd phenomenon in a time when much of Europe experienced the Industrial Revolution.  In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, the departments became provinces of Italy, according to the Rattazzi law. As public sentiment for Italian unification was rather low in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the country did not feature as an object of acquisition in the earlier plans of Piemont-Sardinia's prime minister Cavour. However, as to the railroad, the Church still objected to the construction of tunnels, because of their 'obscenity'. Her Royal Highness attended the 75th edition of Venice Film Festival in 2018, where she appeared for the first time on its Red Carpet. The King of the Two Sicilies was overthrown by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, after which the people supposedly voted in a plebiscite to join the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia. Nevertheless, King Ferdinand felt compelled to grant the constitution sought by the liberals (July 13). ", This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 06:12. Carlo is het derde kind en de enige zoon van prins Ferdinando van Bourbon-Sicilië en … Palermo, the revolutionaries' capital and last stronghold, fell to the government some months later on 15 May 1849. Alfonso. After visiting Naples in 1850, Gladstone began to support Neapolitan opponents of the Bourbon rulers: his "support" consisted of a couple of letters that he sent from Naples to the Parliament in London, describing the "awful conditions" of the Kingdom of Southern Italy and claiming that "it is the negation of God erected to a system of government". 1870-1949 (rinuncia al trono) Ranieri. Other agnatic descendants of the King, born of authorized marriages, bore the title Prince(ss) of the Two Sicilies with the style of Royal Highness. At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. When this was rejected, both countries broke off diplomatic relations. It descends from the Capetian dynasty in legitimate male line through Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, a younger grandson of Louis XIV of France (1638–1715) who established the Bourbon dynasty in Spain in 1700 as Philip V (1683–1746). In 1759 King Philip's younger grandson was appanaged with the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, becoming Ferdinand IV and III (1751–1825), respectively, of those realms. For the kingdom from 1130 to 1282, see, Technological and scientific achievements, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, List of monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Real Marina (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies), "La legge di Archimede: L'accumulazione selvaggia nell'Italia unificata e la nascita del colonialismo interno", "Alexander of Telese's Encomium of Capua and the Formation of the Kingdom of Sicily", "Kingdom of the Two Sicilies | historical kingdom, Italy", "La Dolce Vita? , Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily. Brigandage and the forceful occupation of lands were problems the restored Kingdom inherited from its predecessors. Faced with these differing reactions to his moves, King Ferdinand, using the Swiss Guard, took the initiative and ordered the suppression of the revolution in Naples (May 15) and by July the mainland was again under royal control and by September, also Messina. Finley, M. I., Denis Mack Smith and Christopher Duggan, Petrusewicz, Marta. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was since 1816 the formal name of the since 1734 unified Kingdoms of Naples (peninsular Sicily) and Sicily (the island) under the Bourbon Dynasty. Carlo Maria Bernardo Gennaro van Bourbon-Sicilië, hertog van Castro, ( Saint-Raphaël, 23 februari 1963) is een prins der Beide Siciliën en een van de twee leden van dit huis, die claimt ervan het hoofd te zijn. This change was made in order to make the rules of succession compatible with international and European law, prohibiting any discrimination between men and women. Alfonso offered a different interpretation of the Act of Cannes, describing it as effective only if Carlos should succeed to the Spanish throne. Title held from birth.  The kingdom was the largest sovereign state by population and size in Italy prior to Italian unification, comprising Sicily and all of the peninsula of Italy south of the Papal States, covering most of the area of today's Mezzogiorno.  In the 1800s, the kingdom experienced large population growth, rising from approximately five to seven million. The Bourbons of the Two Sicilies are descended in the direct male line from Hugh Capet, Saint Louis and the Angevins, and more recently the Bourbons through Louis XIV. The engineering factory of Pietrarsa was the largest industrial plant in the Italian peninsula, producing tools, cannons, rails, locomotives. Since Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, has only daughters, in accordance with the traditional male-line succession of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, the succession in theory should go to the senior Calabrian line since Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria has male heirs. The villages housed a large Rural Proletariat, desperately poor and dependent on the landlords for work. As open political activity was suppressed, liberals organized themselves in secret societies, such as the Carbonari, an organization whose origins date back into the French period and which had been outlawed in 1816. You are browsing Her Royal Highness Princess Camilla of Bourbon of Two Sicilies, Duchess of Castro ’s official website. Son of Prince François. Leaving aside the genealogical complexities, we can say that in 1282 the War of the Vespers … The kingdom was formed when the Kingdom of Sicily merged with the Kingdom of Naples, which was officially also known as the Kingdom of Sicily. The growing British control and exploitation of the mining, refining, and transportation of sulfur, combined with the failure of this lucrative export to transform Sicily's backward and impoverished economy, led to the 'Sulfur Crisis' of 1840. Daughter of Prince Antoine.  In 1530 Charles V granted the islands of Malta and Gozo, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta). On the island of Sicily, in 1839, due to less arable lands, the output was much smaller than on the mainland yet c. 115,000 acres of vineyards and c. 260,000 acres of orchards, mainly fig, orange and citrus, were best cultivated. Over half of the delegates elected to parliament in the liberal atmosphere of 1848 were arrested or fled the country. ≈ Since both kingdoms were named Sicily, they were collectively known as the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies"), and the unified kingdom adopted this name. The Kingdom possessed the largest merchant fleet in the Mediterranean. Jul 10, 2020 - BORN: 1870 DIED: 1949. Share some things about the Bourbon-Two Sicilies … Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily": hence, the Two Sicilies. Officially Charles never gave up the title of "The Kingdom of Sicily", thus there existed two separate kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily". Luisa Carlotta was born at Portici, the eldest child of King Francis I and of his wife Infanta Maria Isabella of Spain. In 1829 he had created the Royal Order of Merit (Royal Order of Francis I. of the Two Sicilies). , After the French lost the Battle of Garigliano (1503), they left the kingdom. The French novelist Henri de Stendhal, who visited Naples in 1817, called the kingdom "an absurd monarchy in the style of Philip II". Italy By Rail, 1839-1914 | History Today", Associazione culturale "Amici di Angelo Manna", Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia), Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Museum of the Risorgimento (Castelfidardo), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_the_Two_Sicilies&oldid=991277556, States and territories established in 1816, 1816 establishments in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 1861 disestablishments in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Neapolitan-language text, Articles containing Sicilian-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2019, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Eckaus, Richard S. "The North-South differential in Italian economic development.". The administration, in their treatment of political prisoners, in their observation of 'suspicious elements', violated the rights of the individual guaranteed by the constitution. Sicily had been part of the territories of Aragón and later …  The rails for the first Italian railways were built in Mongiana as well. the Prince Ferdinad Pio, Duke of Calabria. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept Sicily, and his bastard son Ferdinand, who became king of Naples. 1872-1954 > Carlo Tancredi. He also took the position that the Act of Cannes was invalid under the succession rules of the house of Two Sicilies itself. Bourbon-Two Sicilies, House of Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. H.R.H. Naples was home to a University and, established by Matteo Ripa in 1732, the oldest school in Europe teaching Sinology and Oriental studies while a further two universities operated in Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), the King of Sicily lost the Island of Sicily (also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required . Although revolutionaries who had risen in several mainland cities outside Naples shortly after the Sicilians approved of the new measures (April 1848), Sicily continued with her revolution. One of the most important industrial complexes in the kingdom was the shipyard of Castellammare di Stabia, which employed 1800 workers. Princess Camilla of Bourbon Two Sicilies could be fined millions over assets, including a £50 million Gauguin painting, taken from trust fund according to sister, Christina By … The name "Bourbon-Two Sicilies" (sometimes shortened to "Bourbon-Sicily") combines the patriline (Bourbon) with their former territorial designation (Two Sicilies). In the year 1859, the kingdom had only 99 kilometers of rail, compared to the 850 kilometers of Piedmont. The document measures about 23 x 38 cm and is in good condition, it is stored inside a modern frame (overall size 42 x 56 cm). 1851-1918 > Ferdinando Pio. Silk cloth production was focused in San Leucio (near Caserta).  The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo. On 13 February 1816 a fire broke out during a dress-rehearsal for a ballet performance and quickly spread to destroy a part of building.