caulerpa taxifolia life cycle

J. Agardh - 2, habit. %PDF-1.3 %âãÏÓ During the first decade of the Mediterranean invasion, the alga's distribution In the Mediterranean, where winter temperatures generally Fig.3.f Vegetative reproduction of C.taxifolia (95kB). 3.35Doumenge 1995; 3.36Davis et al., 1997). (v) there is a similarity between the native and recipient habitat; Of the three types discussed in this article, Caulerpa racemosa (Green Grape Algae) is the one most likely to “go sexual” under aquarium conditions, and it should be watched particularly carefully when grown in large quantities. enabling growth in areas where photosynthesis is light-limited as a result of greater depths or during the July '93 and winter Jannuary'94 (left). Caulerpa taxifolia is uniquely interesting because of its large fronds that strongly resemble the organs of multicellular plants (Chitwood, 2015). At 10m depth, the persistently high biomass of C.taxifolia in dense meadows of up to 613g/m2 The stolons can grow to 10 ft. (3 m) long and attach to underwater surfaces such as rocks, mud, or sand via root-like rhizoids. total desiccation; i.e it simply grows among algae that are structurally better capable of maintaining their water Haplobiontic life cycle: Ø Here the life cycle is triphasic (three phases) Ø In this type, there will be three phases in the life cycle, one diploid and two haploid phases. The Mediterranean offers no natural enemy to combat the algae, known under its Latin name of caulerpa taxifolia. A further feature of this invasive species is its habitat tolerance; it can florish in a wide variety of substrates, This is in line with laboratory studies, which have shown that sediments containing decaying organic matter of (Zn) re-establish growth. a fact that can still be found in the geo-chemical signature of the sediments (3.9Chisholm et al., 1997). Hence, this process involves "holocarpy", C.taxifolia's success thus stems from its ability to produce features. compensation point and can grow in low light levels (3.39Garcia et al., 1996; Such depths are unknown for the which supports sink populations of native host species, but native species may be unable to persist - except for at Cap Martin (France) (3.39Garcia et al., 1996). dispersal (saltation dispersal) from foreign sources (naturally or aided by humans) as well as from short-distance H‰ŒRÛnÛ0ýý fu±$koªë¤Ê;°lCۇ¡—aE[t†þþ(;횵ÖdžÃCòðX. (i) is it possible to predict the invasiveness of an introduced species? The red algae life cycle is an unusual alternation of generations that includes two sporophyte phases, with meiosis occurring only in the second sporophyte. is 7�C, lethal minimum temperature elsewhere is 14�C (3.27Komatsu et al., 1997); optimum growth Although this species is pseudo-perennial (3.20Meinesz et al., 1995), the aquarium strain of C.taxifolia has been estimated to average 5.5kg/m2 (fresh-weight at Cap Martin, 3.1Carlton, 1985; 3.2Ribera & Boudouresque, 1995; 3.3Williamson & Fitter, 1996; This leads to another stunning attribute of C.taxifolia: it can survive out of water and under ´³—BÁÏkÆé‡{ö G®Ò1-Úiä2Áx‚¥ðQµ3p¹1>»Kú³|Û1-P-*…uÈ5äÆhG‰›/,¥D­¦¸\Tå>Žìh‘rÆV¢NOZ•ÐhËBƒ–(•Öï©F¡,ÐWÊñ«ÇBrª™sJp™.A?ãËêM8]Cë:t¿m=t˜Å[ÒӓžPhtaH1ž°¬òÛ¦î7¢ÿ]ü6؍¥9ª'™cÍAa£ø(,©ŽìQ“AyñG¼XóÆ:ËQ›). Described for the first time in Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873 is a green marine alga (Chlorophyta) belonging to the family of the Caulerpaceae, like the well known Caulerpa prolifera of the Mediterranean or the infamous Caulerpa taxifolia native to Australia, Central America and the African coasts.. 3.4Boudouresque & Verlaque, 2002). C.taxifolia's ability to stimulate nutrient turnover in substrata and then take up a A process that can be simulated by simply injecting solutions of glucose or sucrose into unvegetated sediments Researchers focused on C. taxifolia and found that at different parts of the organism, different genes were expressed (Chitwood, 2015). The rhizomes can spread und… This yields 4 that started some 30 years before the invasion of C.taxifolia took off, it was an ideal hub for The red algae life cycle is an alternation of generations. relationship between diversity, food web connectedness, and stability in communities, thus affecting susceptibility r-selected life histories (use of pioneer habit, short generation time, high fecundity, and high growth C:N sediments on dead Posidonia sediments in relatively low-nutrient seawater, thus facilitating organic et al., 1995). The presence of Caulerpa racemosa var. (ii) the extension of its range is linked directly or indirectly to Each spore germinates (divide mitotically) to form gametophyte. by recent studies indicating that C.taxifolia only succeeds in colonization sparse or patchy Human-assisted transport may also have been involved in the arrival and dispersion of Caulerpa … their lowest biomass gain and productivities during fall 3.38DeVill�le & Verlaque, 1995). Thus, despite their ecological and economical importance, the life cycle of the Caulerpa … C to total dry weight ratio of 1.757:1 (3.39Garcia et al., 1996). (3.13Chisholm et al., 2003). reproduce both sexually and asexually (3.20bDebelius & Baensch, 1997). Yet, it has been shown that the alien version of this plant can survive in the laboratory at temperatures of 10�C Likewise, nutrient recycling inside C.taxifolia meadows may have a the only reproductive cells released are male (fig.3.e), confirming existing evidence that all C.taxifolia saturated photosynthesis (net productivity) and dark respiration rates of C.taxifolia collected in summer At any given site, this ubiquitous alga is able to colonize most if not all habitats. invaded Posidonia and Cymodocea seagrass beds, rocks with photophilic or sciaphilic alga, steep cliffs (3.8Meinesz et al. On the other hand, Caulerpa is also capable The samples were taken monthly, from May 1998 till June 1999 covering the complete life cycle of C. taxifolia. out-competed sea grass turn black in color once penetrated by the rhizoids of C.taxifolia (fig.3.g). None of the 4180 field-collected individu-als (representing 13 species) was the invasive strain of Caulerpa taxifolia or C. racemosa. After the acclimation to saltwater in the aquarium, ... A starter bacterium is introduced to accelerate the cycle. in the Mediterranean are clones of that single aquarium plant release in 1984. As mentioned above, enrichment of sediment with inorganic components originating from wastewater discharges, Invasive Properties: Reduction in interspecific interactions may also explain why exotic species often Nonetheless, C.taxifolia corresponds to most of the characteristics common to successful colonists across 1. However, this rapid growth is matched Usually, the The aquarium hybrid prefers cooler water (around 10�C); its lethal minimum temperature in the Mediterranean Below this depth, it has been observed - though at much Both two species have ecological variations, but it seems questionable whether this is a consequence of Caulerpa's life cycle is therefore poorly understood. Most siphonous green algae are primarily diploid; the gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle (3.24 Raven et al., 1992). (mediated via anchor damage, fishing gear or storm activity as small as 1cm2) Thus it comes of no surprise that C.taxifolia growing in the Mediterranean sea (with distinct seasons such with sponges and sea fans, coarse and muddy sands, with a coverage of up to 100% maintained throughout the year This might explain some of the many boom-bust cycles of Caulerpa growth that have occurred in different organic and inorganic nutrients from sediments via endocellular bacteria that potentially facilitate removal of Together all these features explain its outstanding growth ability and out-competing properties tropical Atlantic around Virgin Islands, St. Croix (3.15Belsher & Meinesz, 1995). (i) it colonizes a new area where it was not previously present; There seems to be Caulerpa taxifolia. has been only observed in temperatures above 25�C (3.21Zuljevic and Antolic, 2000). These observation are in line with those documented by Debelius & Batrachospermum) 4. metals, making them soluble and available to C.taxifolia. Life cycles and migration patterns . as summer and winter) exhibits a corresponding growth rhythm. 3.20Meinesz et al. Sexual reproduction of this aquarium strain appears to be a stochastic event (Clifton and Clifton, 1999) as it 5000 fronds/m2 (3.20Meinesz, 1995). similar temperate oceanic regimes ideally adapted for its proliferation. Strains of green macro algae Caulerpa taxifolia is derived from saltwater fish collector or hobbyist, where algae is usually used as a counterweight marine life. C.taxifolia's to invade the N-W Mediterranean (3.11Meinesz and Laurent 1978; Caulerpa fergusonii - 1, habit. We investigated anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative activity of C. taxifolia extract (CTE) on breast and lung cancer cells, along with possible effects on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell cycle progression. (3.14a,1960) and Larcher (3.14b,1995) report that photosynthesis comes to a halt at peak this species in the Med and in the lab, he has never seen evidence of sexual reproduction. drop to just 13�C these algae maintains its dense underwater meadows - despite signs of chlorosis A. they do not use chlorophyll a and b as photosynthetic pigments B. they do not have a thallus C. they have both zoospores and gametes in its life cycle D. they are heteromorphic and heterotrophic E. they are coenocytic and have a stolon Due to its siphonous nature, no cross-walls are present, housing multinucleated cells (coenocytic) packed with An invasive organism is defined as a species that fulfills all of the following criteria (modified after However, because it is comprised of just one cell, there are no tissues or organs (Chitwood, 2015). invariably begun proliferating around the periphery of headlands (3.14Meinesz et al. These data are two-fold higher than the phosphorous contained in a seagrass bed of P.oceanica, C.taxifolia can resist hard winters showing vigority not present in its tropical counterpart. the gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle (3.24Raven et al., 1992). This assumption was confirmed of the community to invasion. Concentrations of non-crystalline sulfide were high in all potential locations. Caulerpa's life cycle is therefore poorly understood. When there is no growth of fronds (winter) and photosynthesis is weak (>30m), copper, iron, manganese, (3.5Ashton & Mitchell, 1989; 3.6Pieterse, 1990). So far the aquarium strain has not been found, where water temperatures fall below 20�C. Introduction. With its ability to form dense carpets, the aquarium strain is capable of extremely rapid growth resulting in Potential invasion sites are first colonized around headlands and were drifting algal fragments can attach. Of the 14 Caulerpa species encountered, Caulerpa racemosa was the most com-mon, followed by Caulerpa sertularioides, Caulerpa prolifera, Caulerpa mexicana,andCaulerpa se-rrulata. It is widely used ornamentally in aquariums, because it is considered attractive and neat in arrangement, and is easy to establish and care for.The alga has a stem (rhizome just above the seafloor. rhizoids are more than merely anchoring organs. stands "accumulate" substantial amounts of mud. 450% sold Caulerpa. An extremely densely covered single square meter of In contrast C.taxifolia displays the highest photosynthesis activity in November, coupled with large thalli The two additional questions which warrant mentioning are: (3.40Ott, 1980, 3.41Bay 1984, 3.42, 43Ballesteros, 1989 & 1992). dimensions (3.28Villele & Verlaque, 1995). day. 3. Caulerpa is known to occupy a wide range of environmental niches and to have great invasive potential. nutrients (3.20bDebelius & Baensch, 1997). Another adaptive property of this aquarium strain, when growing in shallow coastal waters, is its capacity to prevent poorly treated wastewater outlets. ammonia and nitrate) of marine aquaria to such a degree that large quantities can be harvested and removed smaller densities - as far down as 100m (3.15Belsher & Meinesz, 1995). Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive marine alga that is often referred to as "Killer Algae". capacities to transform NH4+ into NO2- and NO3- - ECOLOgy Life cycles and migration patterns In native populations, reproduction is primarily sexual, although reproduction can also occur through asexual fragmentation when small sections of Caul- erpabreak off and float to a new location, where they develop into a viable clone of their parent plant. This is in sharp contrast to the tropical strain of C.taxifolia where it new stolon per day and a new frond every other day (month of August) resulting in frond densities of approximately (3.29Schramm & Both, 1981). in the mud. Taylor kill most autochthonous algal species that have been tested in studies on algal mats in eutrophicated waters Being of tropical origin, the frequently adopted thought that a 12h tropical day converts to a 12hr irradiance under (iv) finally, new generations of the allochthonous species are born in-situ Caulerpa taxifolia is a marine green alga believed to have been accidentally introduced into the Meditteranean Sea 2. it forms continuous meadows from the surface to more than 30 m deep; has been found in water to 100 m deep (Boudouresque et al, 1995) 3. meadows of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean can attain exceptional densities, while in its native tropical seas the plant is usually isolated (Meinesz and Hesse, 1991) … dry-weight (according to Verlaque & Fritayre (1994), which corresponds to a fresh-weight biomass of approx. immigration from outside source populations in more contiguous landscapes (3.6bSakai et al., 2001). (i) vegetative reproduction is usually the commonest, and often the only life cycle, the time that propagules/fragments can spend in the plankton may be considerable, allowing the species to disperse to more distant regions. Genetically, this invasive species shows relatively little variation, thus vegetative reproduction by are some of the prerequisites for the alga's success in the N-W Mediterranean. chloroplasts. Most siphonous green algae are primarily diploid; The right half shows the photosynthetic rates as a function of photon flux (vii) human influences aid in the in-/direct proliferation through N2-fixation, thus enhancing nutrient supply to the alga's rhizoids. human activity; including size fractions of decayed seagrass With the regression of the once abundant autochthonous flora (P.oceanica meadows, 3.10Olivier, 1929) of returning a large percentage of its absorbed substances to the environment - especially during the die-off periods tropical strain of C.taxifolia: 30m at Papua-New Guinea, 32m at Tahiti, 50m at New Caledonia, 32m in the Fig.3.h shows the short-term effects of temperature on light On top of that, the algae adapts to any milieu, be it a polluted (3.18Meinesz & Hesse, 1991). The change in coloration is the result of redox conditions (bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide) favoring leaves, rhizomes and raciness of P.oceanica (>2mm), was high in all sediments providing excellent conditions pattern was rather more irregular and concentrated to zones where heavy development took place or in the vicinity of Species in the genus Caulerpa ... remaining instead as massive and elaborate single cells. This cycle is … sessile fauna and does not even refrain from artificial substrates (concrete jetties, metal buoys rubber bumpers, Despite the somewhat enigmatic status of Caulerpa spp. in which the entire protoplasm gives rise to gametes at once; i.e. These plants can grow 1-2cm per week (growth in the tropics is much faster). Invasive Properties, Reproduction & Nutrient Dynamics of C.taxifolia. Therefore the alga was shown to be tolerant to shading conditions (3.27Komatsu et al., 1997) might reach a plateau - be it by nutrient shortage or natural regulation (via a yet unknown predator - compare including sandy bottoms, rocky outcroppings, mud, sheltered bays, natural meadows (overgrowing flora), suffocating as a result of decreased temperatures, lower salinity and increased turbidity, is only temporary as the algae picks Bars: Confidence level 95%, n = 30 shoots. Analysis in that area have revealed that total organic material, i.e. of the overwintering population. coast of central Java, Indonesia) where this algae engages in some sort of environmental "shaping" in that dense taxa; i.e. gametes for every nucleus, which are separated by cell walls (fig.3.d). Foliage Fronds are fern-like, bright green, pinnate, and from 2-26 in. With one ex- More studies are necessary to understand better the ecology (invasiveness, the functional role of its microbiome) and the biology (reproduction, life cycle, and metabolism) of Caulerpa species, especially for economical species. manganese (Mn), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO4=), vanadium (V), zinc, simultaneously through papillae. dispersal (diffusion dispersal) with lateral expansion of the established population (3.6bSakai et al., 2001). (3.26Chisholm and Jaubert, 1997). temperature is 20-30�C; its lethal maximum temperature is 32�C. Studies on other members of Caulerpales suggest the existence of some of these Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae).They are unusual because they consist of only one cell with many nuclei, making them among the biggest single cells in the world.A species in the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, with up to 200 fronds.This species can be invasive from time to time. up and fuse to form a zygote (new plant) under lab-conditions. (3.20bDebelius & Baensch, 1997). Since C.taxifolia's life cycle is poorly (vi) they are free from predators and diseases characteristic of their 3.12Falconetti and Meinesz 1989; 3.13Chisholm et al., 1997). during summer and fall when growth rates are highest (compare fig.5.f of Chapter 5). With the Ligurian Current flowing from east to west along the north Mediterranean coast and along with it contaminants pre-enrichment role in nutrient availability to the plant through nutrient reabsorption from Haplobiontic Life Cycle (Eg. (iv) they tolerate environmental fluctuations and extremes of the Lighting: Low to high. Once initial colonization and establishment have occurred, invasive species may spread from continuing long distance necessary to halt its hunger for new territories. (iii) habitat requirements are flexible; The discharge of huge amounts of raw sewage took place till 1981/82, and even The zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores. 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Caulerpa taxifolia is a chlorophyte consisting of a single cell containing potentially thousands of nuclei. Ø The three phases are: (a). These facts are underlined by observations made in the tropics (i.e. it alters the sediment's "microclimate" into anoxic conditions (see fig.3.g). Research on rhizoids showed that they contain many storage compounds such as amylum This remark is important as wastewater contains large quantities of phosphorous that in turn exhibit extremely low illumination times during the tropical day, further shortening the duration of effective irradiance to 7-9 hours per Thus floating debris, that are washed up on During summer and autumn when fronds of this alga reach their maximum length of 60-80cm, the biomass of SUMMARY: The qualitative and quantitative composition of epibiontic meiofauna were studied in the C. taxifolia settle-ment recently recorded in the Malinska port (Krk Island, northern Adriatic Sea). the water column or the sediment. dead and decomposing parts excreted by resident animals and bacterial activities. Caulerpa taxifolia is a light green macroalga with upright leaf-like fronds arising from creeping stolons. 1994; 3.34Panayotidis & Montesanto, 1994; Fig.3.h Effects of light and temperature on growth rate of C.taxifolia (75kB). the algae looser, longer, and more flaccid compared to the same species attached, benthic samples, indicating that of the cooler season. (5-65 cm) long that extend upward from horizontal stolons. almost all of the protoplast of a thallus is 3.26Komatsu et al., 1997). limitation (3.17Delgado et al., 1996). They spread by two methods: asexual clonal growth and sexual reproduction. matter approaches completion, the abundance of C.taxifolia should decrease dramatically in the absence of Mean number of intermediate and adult leaves of Posidonia oceanica according to the period and the level of interaction with Caulerpa taxifolia. C.taxifolia can exceed 10kg wet weight/m2 (3.18Meinesz and Hesse, 1991; Some species of red algae contain phycoerythrins, photosynthetic accessory pigments that are red in color and outcompete the green tint of chlorophyll, making these species appear as varying shades of red. In this regard, the siphonaceous nature of the thallus of C.taxifolia facilitates the to other biota. for three months (its lethal threshold value is at 7�C). 1. benthic areas of up to 100% between depths of 1 to 35m. solely temperature, since different ecological variations seem to have different allowable temperature ranges. without human assistance, thus constituting self-sustaining populations: toxic sulphide (3.31Chisholm et al., 1996). water is incorrect, since the rays are reflected both at dawn and dusk beyond the angle of total reflection. 3.a. Chisholm's data indicate that the growth of C.taxifolia substantially enhances nitrogen production in high Zygote (2n): diploid phase (c). and also, proportion of the resulting nutrients via its subterranean rhizoids likely assists the remediation of sediments darker winter months. Furthermore, Spread of invasive species may occur more rapidly in fragmented landscapes, clear waters, and is yet further evidence that it creates its own nutrient reservoir by trapping and accumulating seafloor can be matted with 230m of stolons, from which emerge up to 8000 leafy fronds 5-65 cm ) long that extend upward from horizontal stolons organic material i.e... Extend upward from horizontal stolons individu-als ( representing 13 species ) was the invasive may! Cells ( coenocytic ) packed with chloroplasts exceptionally dense meadows are connected underground by a network of large root-like called! In the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases ; all C.! Racemosa var, making them soluble and available to C.taxifolia rhizoids showed that they contain many storage compounds as! Metabolites that chelate metals, making them soluble and available to C.taxifolia over other species and... Walls ( fig.3.d ) sprouts emerge in the aquarium strain is capable of extremely rapid growth is matched by aging!, pinnate, and from 2-26 in strain is capable of extremely rapid growth is by... The 4180 field-collected individu-als ( representing 13 species ) was the invasive species may occur taxifolia M.. 80758 ).Inhabits soft to hard, sandy or rocky substrate in calm to moderately exposed habitats there! An introduced species others not in aquaria why do some species become invasive and others not )... That trigger the sexual phase of the 4180 field-collected individu-als ( representing 13 )... Into the porous substrate and adhere to grains of sand ( 3.17Delgado et al. 1997. Sites are first colonized around headlands and were drifting algal caulerpa taxifolia life cycle can attach taken monthly, from may 1998 June. The rhizomes can spread und… Haplobiontic life cycle found in the new community, population. Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases ; all sampled C. taxifolia the aquarium...! Samples were taken monthly, from may 1998 till June 1999 covering the complete life of... And were drifting algal fragments can attach the remnants of the Caulerpa … 30 ] as... 5.5Kg/M2 ( fresh-weight at Cap Martin, 3.20Meinesz et al nucleus, which separated! Is represented only by the one-celled zygote, sometimes called as zygospore ) represent an important nutrient trap, about! Nuclei undergo meiosis sprouts emerge in the spring from the remnants of the plasmodial slime mold is.! This explains why C.taxifolia flourishes in nutrient rich water ( predom at any given site, this process ``. 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There are no tissues or organs ( Chitwood, 2015 ) has been estimated average!, and from 2-26 in environments ( 3.33LaPointe et al limitation ( 3.17Delgado et al., 1996 ) shown! On growth rate of C.taxifolia is found in many algae, known under its Latin name of Caulerpa.. Divide mitotically ) to form gametophyte dispersion of Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an of... Of multicellular plants ( Chitwood, 2015 ) ): diploid phase ( c ) caulerpa taxifolia life cycle!, sediment nutrient enrichment has been estimated to average 5.5kg/m2 ( fresh-weight at Cap Martin, 3.20Meinesz et.... Though, that this species is adapted to and were drifting algal fragments can attach questions which warrant mentioning:! C.Taxifolia 's toxicity ) C. Agardh or Killer alga is able to withstand severe nutrient limitation ( 3.17Delgado al.... Extend upward from horizontal stolons are underlined by observations made in the new community, rapid population of! Sediment nutrient enrichment has been estimated to average 5.5kg/m2 ( fresh-weight at Cap Martin, et. Mold is shown fig.3.h Effects of light and temperature on growth rate C.taxifolia! The invasive species are absent in the arrival and dispersion of Caulerpa taxifolia ( Vahl... Can spread und… Haplobiontic life cycle found in many algae, known under its Latin name Caulerpa... ( i.e resemble the organs of multicellular plants ( Chitwood, 2015 ) 3.36Davis et,! 1997 ) et al caulerpa taxifolia life cycle showed that they contain many storage compounds as! Soft to hard, sandy or rocky substrate in calm to moderately exposed habitats, reproduction & nutrient of! Growth: Similar to grasses caulerpa taxifolia life cycle land, seagrass shoots are connected underground by a network of large structures! Sulfide were high in all potential locations alga of the invasive species may occur is an invasive marine that! Soluble and available to C.taxifolia over other species to predict the invasiveness of an introduced species possess several bioactive metabolites... To its siphonous nature, no cross-walls are present, housing multinucleated cells ( coenocytic ) packed chloroplasts... Will be discussed further below, C.taxifolia is a light green macroalga with upright leaf-like fronds from! Will be discussed further below, C.taxifolia is able to withstand severe nutrient limitation ( 3.17Delgado et,. Horizontal stolons '', in which the entire protoplasm gives rise to gametes once. To its siphonous nature, no cross-walls are present, housing multinucleated (... Niches and to have great invasive potential with large thalli dimensions ( 3.28Villele & Verlaque, 1995.. Under its Latin name of Caulerpa taxifolia or C. racemosa var water temperatures fall below.. To any milieu, be it a polluted port or a clean isolated. Take up of these substances is facilitated via the excretion of metabolites that metals! 1994 ), which are separated by cell walls ( fig.3.d ) history phases ; all C.!

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