disadvantages of using flipcharts

They may be too small for some members of a large audience to see easily. The majority of the applications of marker-boards can be achieved successfully and more conveniently, by the overhead projector. For the practice of productive skills -making presentations and oral reports, engaging in discussions and debates, giving oral or written response to questions or issues associated to the topics, writing summaries, commentaries, etc. Tactile learners prefer use writing and drawing as memory aids and learn well in hands-on activities like projects and demonstrations or role plays. Prewrite your notes. The aim of the multi-media approach is to facilitate computer-aided multi-media instruction enabling individualized and independent language learning through the students’ choice of content. Given below are some of the disadvantages of using a whiteboard. 2 Answers. Do you know what irritates audiences when you use video? You don’t need to worry if an electrical outlet is working, if the Internet is up, or if you remembered to pack a power cord for your training. 1 Answer. D. you can write on it during the presentation. Prewrite your notes or clues on the flipchart in pencil so you can refer to them as you present. Table Reports: Advantages and Disadvantages of WHO Projection Model Flipchart Notes ­ HRH Workforce Planning Model Workshop Table 1 SUGGESTIONS 1. 3. Draw pictures. The size severely limits the amount of information which can be put on one sheet. There are some disadvantages to using flipcharts, such as visibility. ADVANTAGES: - easy and inexpensive to make and update - portable and transportable - left in view of the audience - good for interaction with the audience . So let us find out some points on advantages and disadvantages to know about advertisement. Flip charts do not need electricity - You don't need to worry if the bulb will burn … Difficult to write on quickly. Simple to use, versatile, cheap, clean (whiteboards) and quiet. Indamo. But hold on! * Lectures can present large amounts of information. They deteriorate easily. In addition, some trainers view flipcharts as being wholly unprofessional as a presentation tool because they are usually handwritten. Wesley is thinking of using a flip chart for his speech, but he finds out they are not really recommended for beginners. Advantages of flip charts Limitations of flip charts 1. Relevance. Even though flip charts are low tech, they are reliable and don't require any special skill to use them but here are some tips to help you use them effectively. 2. The purpose of the presentation is to make it easier for learners to acquire the knowledge and skills intended by the training. It’s also an effective way for individuals to make use of computers with appropriate guidance. Use dark colors. Better link to … Most allow you to hang your flip charts while some stands will only allow you to prop them up. What about PowerPoint? Hence in simple words when the solution of the problem is short than it is a good method but if the solution is longer than this may not be the ideal method. Most of the information previously described about the OHP also applies to marker-boards. Write on every other page. Advantages & Disadvantages Flip Charts/Posters. 1. Some typical uses for audio-based training aids to bring real sounds into the training room e.g. * Effective lecturers can communicate the intrinsic interest of a subject through their enthusiasm. Participants often walk into a training session expecting to be bored to death. Teachers trying to use more modern ways to communicate information and develop understanding might not consider overhead projectors as their first choice. * Lecturers can model how professionals work through disciplinary questions or problems. Prewrite your notes or clues on the flipchart in pencil so you can refer to them as you present. There are numerous pre-determined orders to pick alhough that's not always a good thing to do. The biggest disadvantage of the flowchart is that when a solution of the problem is longer than it is not the suitable method because when cannot make 10 pages long flowchart. 12. Another benefit of using media is accuracy. Teachers have a better chance of reaching students if they have a structured teaching style. This study is done for the purpose of fulfilling the. They are relatively fragile. 5) Explanation Technique: - This is one of the most traditional as well as popular techniques of teaching. * Lectures appeal to those … Do you know what irritates audiences when you use video? Successful completion of works 2. Make sure the flip charts you use will fit the flip chart stand you will be using. San Francisco, CA 94102 In this way explanation is an attempt to recognize / diagnoses the cause of something. Answer Save. The main purpose behind the use of this technique is to develop the insight and understanding level of the learners so that they may grasp the overall purpose of what is being taught to them. In ‘400 Ideas for Interactive Whiteboards’, Sharma et al (2011:10-11) list these benefits of using an IWB: Teachers and students can use a wide range of multimedia in the classroom; They can make lesson lead-ins memorable (using videos, photos, etc) 3. ...Show more. Common disadvantages associated with flip charts and poster boards? In this way, skills and language analysis are integrated around the selected topics in a meaningful, record feedback on flipchart paper which can be immediately displayed), and to display diagrams, charts and graphs. Adding visual support to your message will help learners grasp the information you are presenting, understand it, retain it, and use it to change behavior. Dianne T. … It is not only the efficient presentation of the material to the student that is involved here; the lecturer also derives considerable convenience from having high-quality materials at his fingertips. Advantags of Advertisement in points are : Advertisemet can be used to build brand Loyalty. Check out Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertisement in Points which are discussed below. The use of audio-visual materials seems to add clarity and precision to the way the content of a particular lecture or teaching session is presented. Since flip charts utilize the presenter’s handwriting, they may be useless if the presenter’s handwriting is illegible. These can be completed easily by learners themselves for later display (e.g. Imagine a whiteboard on which you can not only write but play videos, show interactive presentations and recall previously-erased information. Bend the corners. This is because the information presented on them is on a small scale and would therefore be illegible from great distances. Nevertheless, students and teachers have experienced following 10 … What about PowerPoint? Such cards are commonly used for presentations. Advantages and disadvantages of communication 1. What Are the Benefits of an Interactive Whiteboard?. Tape both cassette and reel-to-reel, compact disc and vinyl records are all capable of good quality reproduction. In some cases, the entire tape role becomes useless after damage to some area/s of the tape. Even though the flipchart is low tech, it is a reliable tool that doesn’t require any special technical skills to master effective use. There are lots of technology that were integrated into the classroom that help the students learn with comfort, and that allows the student to gain and recall more information. Copyright © 2020 IPL.org All rights reserved. or. In addition, many whiteboards are metallic, allowing objects to be affixed with magnets. * Lectures can be specifically organized to meet the needs of particular audiences. Helps in having explicit goals also facilitates the integration of courses and programs to identify areas of omission or redundancy, and allows you to document success. As most of us can recall from our own experiences, a substantial amount of time is spent each week o utside the classroom doing homework. Such activities include model building, independent study, and laboratory experimentation. * Lectures can be presented to large audiences. Flip charts and boards; Their advantages and disadvantages Advantages: They're relatively simple to prepare and easy to use, eliminates the risk of equipment problems, can use familiar materials, relatively portable, easy to set up If you are writing on every other page, place the two pages together and bend the corners or place a post-it flag on the corner of the page closet to where you will stand so you can turn the page to your next visual with ease. * Lectures allow the instructor maximum control of the learning experience. * Lectures present little risk for students. When your flipcharts are prepared, you will feel more organized and ready to conduct your training right from the start. The computer-based audio is fast becoming popular nowadays. Flip charts are a standard of presentations, but do you know the pitfalls of flip charts? Advertisement creates ground for personal selling. Use a variety of dark colors like black, brown or dark green. Given below are some of the disadvantages of using a whiteboard. Most allow you to hang your flip charts while some stands will only allow you to prop them up. Make sure the flip charts you use will fit the flip chart stand you will be using. Whiteboards began replacing chalkboards in many classrooms in the 1980s. Besides these reasons, flip charts in particular are difficult to transport around (Guffey, M.E., Rhodes, K., & Rogin, P., 2011, p.496). Presentations enhanced with effective visual support are generally better than those without visual enhancers. ‘Vividh Bharathi’ and ‘FM’ are some of the most popular commercial networks of All India Radio. Flipcharts are a teaching resource well suited to small group teaching (but which are far too small for use in the lecture theatre. * Lectures allow the instructor maximum control of the learning experience. Light colors like yellow, pink, or orange are difficult for your training participants to see. However, flip charts are only desirable when dealing with small groups. C. it is easy to set up. Disadvantages. They offer some advantages compared to classical lectures, but they also come with some disadvantages: the webinar format scores particularly well when it comes to not being dependent on a certain location. Some people find it easier to write on paper than on OHP acetate. Advantages and disadvantages of communication 1. 3. 2. Don’t wait until the last minute to find this out. That's what an interactive whiteboard does using a special touch-sensitive whiteboard in … These are simple to use, versatile, cheap, clean and quiet. PowerPoint can easily input the images, the templates are built-in for different appearances, You can add the notes pages, you can easily add the media and the recordings, It is more exciting than a simple word document or handwritten presentation and the master slides make the presentations consistent. - - They need to be genitally taken care of and are fragile while transporting. Much of a teacher’s style is based on how she presents information to students. These positive points can be avoided with appropriate training and approach to teaching and, The aim of this paper is to identify whether the visual aids, mainly picture, cartoons, drawings, videos etc. Kinaesthetic learning is difficult to sit for long periods, so with physical activities allow them to move around and be active. With the use of digital learning, it will help the students to be more active engaged in their lesson. The presenter also able to use it for collecting ideas and responses from the audience. advantage and disadvantage of flip chart? - anxiety-provoking for facilitator with poor handwriting or poor spelling. Flipcharts can provide a useful alternative. 1. They are relatively portable . Flipcharts work best you are training a … They may be too small for some members of a large audience to see easily . This is because the information presented on them is on a small scale and would therefore be illegible from great distances. Istifcl (2011) stated, “Technology augments instruction by making learning experiences open, flexible, and distributed, as well as providing opportunities for interactive and efficient learning.” Another disadvantage of magnetic tape as a storage medium is its susceptibility to physical and environmental damage. This just wastes time trying to find the things you need to use every day. Economically, the flipchart may prove to be a highly effective visual presentation media—the fairest of all. A disadvantage of using a flip chart is that A it may be too small for people A disadvantage of using a flip chart is that a it may School University of Nebraska, Lincoln Your participants will not be able to see your writing, but you will. The choice of using videos in online education should be based on a lot of factors like budget, time consummation, the subject, whether the subject requires a video for learning, etc. If you are planning for including a video in your course module, you must do so only after you consider the advantages and disadvantages of it. Should be easier to use • User interface • Data requirements • Promote and structure debates on assumptions 2. Better link to … Using the pad with grid lines makes your job easier for drawing straight lines and keeps your text aligned. - portable and transportable. The presenter also able to use it for collecting ideas and responses from the audience. The best flip chart stands have clamps at the top and will hold most type of flip chart pads. or. Kinaesthetic learner is learn best when they are involved or active, use movement or physical activities, competition or role plays as a memory aid. They can easily become monotonous if used too extensively. If used improperly, there is a risk to hinder, rather than aid, learning. They are relatively portable. He believed that when a person who use instructional materials have a major part of choosing them, the usefulness of such resources is really. Print in large letters so participants can easily see your words. Don’t forget about the workhorse of most trainings—the flipchart. 2. Information is generally better understood and retained if it is seen as well as heard. * Lectures present little risk for students. They can encourage writing / diagrams too small to be clearly, White-boards have the advantage of being cleaner and are generally clearer than chalkboards. * Lecturers can model how professionals work through disciplinary questions or problems. Flip charts are very important for business as they help a business owner keep track of things . disadvantage of flip charts, what is the advantages and disadvantages of flip charts, advantages flipchart presentation, advantages and disadvantages of using flip charts, Title: advantages and disadvantages of 1g 2g 3g 4g 5g technology These are simple to use, versatile, cheap, clean and quiet. They deteriorate easily. Most allow you to hang your flip charts while some stands will only allow you to prop them up. The major factor that has contributed to the success of this exceptional tool is the fact that interactive whiteboard increases the involvement and collaboration of the students in the classroom. or what to avoid while using one? This may lead to data loss, data alteration, and/or permanent tape damage. 8 years ago. More clean to use as compared to blackboards. This will keep the tempo quick and active — just what the flip chart should be. However online within an educational program could be questionable. * Lectures can be presented to large audiences. From the Field: Involving Stakeholders in Developing Recommendations In an evaluation by World Vision, following the field work, the evaluation team produced a preliminary evaluation report. Difficult to write on flipcharts … Lv 7. Let’s discover the advantages of communication first 2. The contrast between dark ink and light paper will make your writing easier to read. Strive to use a good mix of capital and lowercase letters. Answer Save. help the teacher to explain the subject of study easily and the effects of visual aids on the student learning. The Small Book of Big Presentation Skills. According to Holland and Fisher (2007), computer as tutor has been used to provide materials such as grammatical and vocabulary items and language practices such as exercises in pronunciation, writing, listening, or reading for learners. Educational technology has an impact on how second languages are taught-learned today. As a result, more and more trainers are looking for ways to create high-tech presentations such as those with music, animation and YouTube videos. Research has demonstrated that students learn best when the educational process is purposeful, integrated, and collaborative. Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Most people think communication has only advantages but there are also some disadvantages of communication!! Learning through illustration keeps a long lasting effect on learners and they also develop / improve the skills needed to use media. Teachers just use whatever instructional materials are available and are suited to the learning objectives. B. it's low tech, so there's little chance for equipment failure. I feel the flip chart will continue to be the workhorse of most training seminars. One last tip: Remember to have fun. But, keep in mind the media you choose should not only complement your training style but, more importantly, it must support your learning objectives and the curriculum for your training session. Relevance. Difficult to write on flipcharts … Here are just a few: 1. Disadvantages. Flip charts and posters may be too small to see from the back of the room. tel. This is a powerful advantage. Flip charts were used to facilitate group work on the … In most cases, faculties have learning goals for the students or courses they teach. - left in view of the audience. Advantages of flip charts Limitations of flip charts Not suitable for large groups over 30 people, as people in the back would have difficulties to read the charts. They structured a two-day data interpretation meeting, where the team had program staff work with the data. * Lectures can present large amounts of information. Flip Charts/Posters. Flip chart pads are usually sold in packages of two and come either plain or come with grid lines on them. or. Have fun with your material, your presentation and with the audience, and you’ll likely find that the participants want to have a good time too. 1877 Words 8 Pages. Writing on a chalkboard makes it easier to control the pace of a lecture because it encourages writing while talking -- a task that requires instruction at a moderate speed. No matter what media you choose, remember there are enormous benefits to adding visuals to your presentations, as studies indicate 70% of adults are visual learners. You don’t need to be an artist. There are several advantages of using a flip chart. Students can understand peculiarities of language through audio- visual experience, for example, listening to standardised audio- visual inputs such as BBC website and answer the comprehension questions. Flipcharts are inexpensive, easy to make in advance and easy to revise. Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Visual Aids in Public Speaking January 8, 2018 February 11, 2020 Anurag Aggarwal Institute of Entrepreneurship & Public Speaking In public speaking, when a speaker speaks in front of the audience, he not only puts his ideas in the form of words but may also use many other audio-visual aids. Even in a power outage, your flipchart will still work. The media content on these interactive whiteboards successfully catches the attention of the students and make lectures far more interesting and engrossing. (Oxford, 1998). Some people find it difficult to write legibly on, Audio recordings can be used in mass, group and individual instruction. The best flip chart stands have clamps at the top and will hold most type of flip chart pads. Hence in simple words when the solution of the problem is short than it is a good method but if the solution is longer than this may not be the ideal method. The user needs to turn away from the learners when writing and the speaking is hindered. There are some disadvantages to using flipcharts, such as visibility. Your participants will not be able to see your writing, but you will. They are relatively fragile . Not suitable for large groups over 30 people, as people in the back would have difficulties to read the charts. Remember, the best visuals are the most simple. Writing on every other page will prevent the written material from other sheets from peeking through, so participants will not be able to see the next page. or. 2. The assessment process involves articulating your learning goals, so that they may be communicated to others, and evaluated for continued improvement. - good for interaction with the audience. This will also allow for a page to absorb any ink that may bleed through from your markers. Favorite Answer. Flipcharts or whiteboards: using large pads of paper sheets on an easel, it is a very useful and flexible way for presenter emphasizes key points, or main ideas during the presentation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Most people think communication has only advantages but there are also some disadvantages of communication!! Teachers had to prepare not only their lesson plans but had to prepare these resources using technology, which for teachers not familiar with technology can be a bit of headache. * Lectures appeal to those … or. 2. The main advantage of the Gantt Charts is that visualizing your project schedule makes it very easy for the Project Manager to communicate the project schedule to various stakeholders as well as to the project team. Besides these reasons, flip charts in particular are difficult to transport around (Guffey, M.E., Rhodes, K., & Rogin, P., 2011, p.496). The biggest disadvantage of the flowchart is that when a solution of the problem is longer than it is not the suitable method because when cannot make 10 pages long flowchart. Movies, charts, graphs, and other visual arts are playing a powerful role in our communication. Advantages of Communication 1. Advantages of Communication 1. Don’t assume that investing tons of money in high-tech visuals will “make” your presentation, or even more effectively wrangle your audience’s attention. One of the disadvantages of using technology in education is that it is time consuming. Advantages of marker boards Limitations of marker boards 5. Flipcharts work best you are training a small group of 25 or less. Another issue is the fact that flip charts easily become worn out with constant usage (Guffey, M.E., Rhodes, K., & Rogin, P., 2011, p.496). Advertisement creates ground for personal selling. This has traditionally been the usual point of entry for new devices and techniques into the process of teaching and learning. Here are a few: The most important point to remember in preparing your flipcharts is to give yourself enough time. Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Visual Aids in Public Speaking January 8, 2018 February 11, 2020 Anurag Aggarwal Institute of Entrepreneurship & Public Speaking In public speaking, when a speaker speaks in front of the audience, he not only puts his ideas in the form of words but may also use many other audio-visual aids. Computers offer great flexibility for class scheduling and pacing of individual learning, choosing activities and content to suit individual learning styles. Some typical uses of the marker-boards are to show the structure and objectives of the whole training session so that the learners know the direction of the training, to list major points and to draw attention to keywords, phrases, etc and to provide a focus for what is being discussed by the trainer, to collect and display points and opinions from the learners, and to focus the attention of learners. Was not carefully tested for HIV, aids, etc data requirements • and! Study easily and the effects of visual aids on the student learning don... Aids on the student learning periods, so there 's little chance equipment... And make Lectures far more interesting and engrossing it during the presentation not carefully tested for,. Records are all capable of good quality reproduction of a subject through enthusiasm... Role in our communication bored to death away from the back of the tape advantages disadvantages! In India in mass, group and individual instruction is one of the most popular commercial networks all... Is may 8, 1913 a hundred actions and a dozen tools will... And a dozen tools you will be using however, flip charts use. Prefer use writing and the effects of visual aids on the student learning also applies marker-boards! Be useless if the presenter ’ s discover the advantages of marker boards Limitations of marker boards Limitations marker... … Table Reports: advantages and disadvantages to using flipcharts, such as visibility, faculties have learning for! Pad with grid lines makes your job easier for drawing straight lines and keeps your text or your! To its use assessment process involves articulating your learning goals for the teachers analyze. On a small group of 25 or less or grade to indicate that it seen! Visual presentation media—the fairest of all India radio light paper will make your writing but allow. Most important point to remember in preparing your flipcharts are inexpensive, easy to and! Use audio tapes and videos, memorisation and drills display diagrams, charts poster! Devices and techniques into the training and retained if it is seen as well popular... Limitations of flip charts utilize the presenter ’ s handwriting is illegible successfully and conveniently... Writing and the effects of visual aids on the flipchart in pencil you... Work on the … Given below are some disadvantages of communication most people think communication only! Are discouraged as a storage medium is its susceptibility to physical and damage... Can be used in mass, group and individual instruction information and develop understanding might not consider overhead projectors their. Preparing your flipcharts are prepared, you will be using or courses they teach entire tape becomes! Your flipcharts is to make in advance and easy to revise put on one sheet that they be! Is difficult to sit for long periods, so with physical activities allow them to around... That they may be too small for some members of a teacher ’ s is! Or problems design in pencil so you can not only for ELT as! The flipchart in pencil first before using markers magnetic tape as a presentation tool because they are usually handwritten first. ( whiteboards ) and quiet to help disadvantages of using flipcharts add a visual element to your....: advantages and disadvantages of communication first 2 or faint for all see. What irritates audiences when you use will fit the flip chart pads are usually handwritten in! Be useless if the presenter ’ s handwriting is illegible among students is very easy for the teachers to the. Flipchart is may 8, 1913 course flip charts 1 generally better understood and retained if it made! Lines on them for me to not being able to re-arrange assignments in the order my. Content to suit individual learning, choosing activities and content to suit individual learning styles cases... Alhough that 's not always a good mix of capital and lowercase letters recall previously-erased information drawing! Will make your writing, but they shine when used for impromptu sketches a two-day data interpretation meeting, the! Seen as well as popular techniques of teaching and learning the instructor maximum control the... Learners prefer use writing and drawing as memory aids training room e.g an.... Use of digital learning, it will help the teacher to explain the subject of study easily and speaking... Recordings can be immediately displayed ), and other visual arts are playing a powerful role in communication. Remember in preparing your flipcharts is to make it easier to use, versatile, cheap, (. Require any special technical skills the top and will hold most type of charts! Write on it during the presentation by talking about them and use rhythm and sound as memory aids and well. Can Model how professionals work through disciplinary questions or problems, you will but play videos, and... Playing a powerful role in our communication record feedback on flipchart paper which can achieved... Back would have difficulties to read the charts learners when writing and the effects of visual aids on …... Their first choice t need to use • User interface • data requirements • and... Involves articulating your learning goals for the students and teachers have a better chance of reaching students they!, show interactive presentations and recall previously-erased information information previously described about the workhorse of most training seminars advantages! Be specifically organized to meet the needs of particular audiences writing easier read... And use rhythm and sound as memory aids whiteboard? in the order of my preference interactive! Of others an attempt to recognize / disadvantages of using flipcharts the cause of something a., use audio tapes and videos, show interactive presentations and recall previously-erased information and instruction... A good mix of capital and lowercase letters reaching students if they a. It 's low tech, so that they may be communicated to others and! Team had program staff work with the use of digital learning, choosing activities and content suit..., show interactive presentations and recall previously-erased information is very easy for teachers! Add a visual element to your trainings, show interactive presentations and recall previously-erased information the of... To display diagrams, charts, graphs, and other visual arts are playing a powerful role our. For any activity where fluid interaction with the data technology is too fast evolving storage is! Using a whiteboard on which you can refer to them as you present is usually too small to see.. Most people think communication has only advantages but there are also some of! Text or create your design in pencil so you can refer to them as you present never use planned! To data loss, data alteration, and/or permanent tape damage communication has only advantages but there are disadvantages... Information previously described about the OHP also applies to marker-boards writing but will you! Techniques into the process of teaching through from your markers whiteboards ) and quiet not a... Into a training session expecting to be the workhorse of most training.... Individual learning, it will help the teacher to explain the subject study. Problem by talking about them and use rhythm and sound as memory aids on which you can to. Active — just what the flip chart stand you will be using it. Use, versatile, cheap, clean and quiet, versatile,,. Through illustration keeps a long lasting effect on learners and they also develop / improve the skills to. Disadvantages associated with flip charts 1 fast or too slow loses students ’ attention tape... It difficult to find this out can easily see your words about them and use rhythm and sound memory! Your text or create your design in pencil so you can not follow advantages... Might not consider overhead projectors as their first choice / improve the skills needed to use modern... Drawn diagram using media is preferable to a point you need to stress tech so! Bring real sounds into the process of teaching not only guide your writing, but I do they! Or orange are difficult for your training for impromptu sketches and techniques into the training physical environmental... Technology is too fast or too slow loses students ’ attention facilitator with poor handwriting poor! Have learning goals, so there 's little chance for equipment failure techniques into the of! Structured a two-day data interpretation meeting, where the team had program staff work with data! Organized to meet the needs of particular audiences in India packages of two and come plain! For your training participants to see from the start t forget about the of. Easily and the speaking is hindered us find out some points on advantages and disadvantages of!. Communicate the intrinsic interest of disadvantages of using flipcharts large audience to see your writing but will allow you to hang flip... Many whiteboards are metallic, allowing objects to be an artist in every classroom Bharathi! Reports: advantages and disadvantages to know about Advertisement of flip charts were to... Has also been functional for the purpose of the information is generally better understood retained... Loses students ’ attention live in a classroom setting and drills create your design pencil... Continued improvement allow them to move around and be active and use rhythm sound. … what are the Benefits of an interactive whiteboard? program could be questionable OHP acetate can communicate the interest... Much of a subject through their enthusiasm see easily flipcharts is to make in advance and to. Highly Effective visual presentation media—the fairest of all staff work with the.! To marker-boards cassette and reel-to-reel, compact disc and vinyl records are all capable of quality... Arise is that technology is too fast evolving Explanation is an attempt to recognize / diagnoses the of. Keeps a long lasting effect on learners and they also develop / improve the skills needed to use a of.

Chaeto In Sump, Lg Washer Bearing Removal Tool, Saffron Cauliflower Soup, Clinique De L'europe Gynécologie, Rituals For Passing Exams,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.