ethical decision making in dental hygiene

Dental hygienists practise competently in conformity with relevant principles, standards, laws, and the regulations under the RHPA, 1991 and DHA, 1991 and accept. Consider the effects of being fined and losing your license. Select the course of action. 100 Years of Dental Hygiene. Ethics in dental hygiene Dental hygienists will face ethical dilemmas at some point in their careers. Gain a comprehensive understanding of the ethical and legal issues in dental practice and learn professional, practical ways to handle them with Ethics and Law in Dental Hygiene, 3rd Edition. Once a problem has been recognized, the decision maker must clearly and succinctly state the ethical question, but only after considering all pertinent aspects of the problem. Dentists and dental hygienists are confronted with myriad questions to consider, requiring them to factor in the code of ethics and their own values and beliefs before arriving at a decision. The dental hygienist decides to look for other employment opportunities and leaves the original office when a new position is secured. Make the Decision. She is an associate director in the Center for Ethics in Health Care at OHSU and co-chairs the 3. From Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. about ethics and law that is used in dental hygiene education programs. Most models use principle-based reasoning, an approach derived from the work of philosophers Beauchamp and Childress.3 The objectives of this code are to:1, The ADHA published a second document, Standards for Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice, which was also revised in 2016. Dental hygienists face ethical dilemmas that affect themselves and their patients, similar to other health professionals. . List alternatives. Ethical choices and dilemmas will occur throughout the professional life of any healthcare worker. American Dental Hygienists’ Association. Dental hygienists face ethical dilemmas and perhaps even legal issues throughout their careers, but a strong educational foundation in ethics and ethical decision-making can help guide their actions and behaviors. Available at: tiki-toki.com/ timeline/entry/55646/100-Years-of-Dental-Hygiene/ #vars!panel=679914!. In addition, patients assume the dental hygienist is practicing legally and within his scope of practice (trust). The new patient presents with generalized 4 mm to 5 mm probing depths, classified as moderate chronic adult periodontitis, which has been treated in the past. The process of decision-making is dynamic, evolving as additional information comes to light. In 1990, a survey of ethical issues among dental hygienists was conducted.9 This survey evaluated the type and frequency of ethical issues encountered and asked the participants about the education they received in ethical theory and problem solving. Ethical Decision Making in Dental Hygiene May 1, 2017 Clinicians face ethical dilemmas throughout their careers, but a strong educational foundation in ethics and … Patient-, not production-focused, dentistry will ultimately drive more patients to the practice, increase production organically, and make the team work in a goal-oriented, cohesive, and respectful manner. All legal actions are ethical and moral a. true b. false. Available at: ada.org/ ~/media/CODA/Files/dh.ashx. Complete periodontal and radiographic assessments and ask the patient about any changes in medications or control of systemic conditions that may affect his periodontal status. Using the following decision-making steps may appear simplistic, but it can be extremely useful in solving ethical dilemmas. In addition, he emphasizes if an emergency were to occur or the patient had more questions for the dentist, the dentist needed to be available. •to establish a standard for professional judgment and conduct. Discuss the evolution of ethics education. Whatever the outcome, the dental hygienist reflected on the core values used in the decision-making steps and knows she “did the right thing.”. Having a good dental team with the same or similar core values can help to make those decisions easier. Specific objectives of the Dental Hygiene Code of Ethics are: To increase our professional and ethical consciousness and sense of ethical responsibility. The dental hygienist chooses to speak to the dentist one more time, being more adamant about the legalities of the situation and how he does not want to jeopardize his dental hygiene license. The next step is to view the situation with a focus on ethical principles (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) and ethical values and concepts (paternalism, confidentiality, and informed consent), as one or more may be involved in reaching an ethical decision (Figure 2). Specific objectives of the Dental Hygiene Code of Ethics are: •to increase our professional and ethical consciousness and sense of ethical responsibility. Accessed April 18, 2017. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. Scenario #1. The following scenarios involve substandard care and scope of practice. The dental hygienist discusses the findings with the patient and informs him that she will present these findings to the dentist, so everyone can be involved in the decision about whether to proceed with further periodontal treatment. 2nd ed. A dental hygienist is hired at a private practice immediately upon graduation from his dental hygiene program. The ADHA maintains a Code of Ethics for Dental Hygienists that was revised and re-adopted in June 2016.1 This document specifically delineates its purpose, key concepts, basic beliefs, fundamental principles, core values, and standards of professional responsibility. The patient’s periodontal status is declining. After conducting this analysis for each option, it becomes apparent which ethical principles are in conflict in any given situation. Review diabetic history and treatment with physician. Kacerik MG, Prajer RG, Conrad C. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum. The patient has type II diabetes and high blood pressure, which are both controlled with medications. The model provided here is a simple, six-step approach derived from the decision-making literature as interpreted by Atchison and Beemsterboer and used in the early 1990s with dental and dental hygiene students in a combined ethics course.4 It is a reasoned approach based on theory and principle. These problems arise when the clinician is caught between competing obligations and has to weigh two or more options to resolve the situation. As professionals, we need be familiar with the code of ethics to help guide our behavior. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at ada.org/cerp. Establish a standard of professional judgment and conduct. Gather the facts. The natural consequence of maintaining low ethical standards in your patient care is to make a poor living over time. He could discontinue the treatment of his patient when he knows the dentist has left the office. From Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. The profession’s code of ethics is based on a preamble that states that we are “devoted to the prevention of disease and the promotion and improvement of the public’s health.” Therefore, the authors concluded that the majority of respondents encountered serious ethical dilemmas in their practices and as a result, found that entry-level education should include more education in solving ethical dilemmas.9. Beemsterboer can be reached at: [email protected], The Dental Hygienist’s Role in HPV Recognition, Detecting Premalignant and Malignant White Lesions, CE Sponsored by Colgate: Digital Dentistry and the Quest to Improve Oral Health, Effects of a Plant-Based Diet on Oral Health. Available at: amnhealthcare.com/latest-healthcare-news/five-top-ethical-issues-healthcare/. The dentist is not in the office while the newly graduated dental hygienist is still treating patients, which is in violation of the state’s dental practice act. d. it is a six-step approach diagrammed as a circle. Description. Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum. 6: Ethical Decision Making in DH and Dentistry. Learn how your comment data is processed. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many documents reinforce this ethical practice directive. responsibility for their behaviour and decisions in the professional context. Minimally Ethical. He does not want to jeopardize the patient’s care in any manner (nonmaleficence). Click here for our refund/cancellation policy. Ethics in dentistry can be a very tricky and tough road to go down. The decision making steps are as follows: Following is a different type of ethical dilemma regarding employment issues. Planning . The teaching of ethics in the dental hygiene curriculum. Patients’ rights to make their own choices/decisions (autonomy) must be weighed against practitioners’ responsibilities to provide the best care (beneficence). The respondents felt that dental hygienists had a strong duty to report, intercede, or educate in areas of abuse, sexual harassment, detection of cancer, and smoking cessation. The teaching of ethics has been acknowledged as an essential part of the education of the dental health care professional since 1989, when the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) established guidelines that stated curriculum should provide opportunities for refining skills of ethical analysis so students are able to apply ethical principles to new and emerging problems in the profession. In 2013, a study at the University of Minnesota looked at the effectiveness of changes made to its curriculum.11 These changes included adding new courses and updating others in an effort to enhance professional identity and responsibility. These dilemmas can vary depending on the type of practice, specialty, and age of patients in the practice. Clinicians face ethical dilemmas throughout their careers, but a strong educational foundation in ethics and ethical decision-making provides a helpful guide. After several years of periodontal maintenance appointments, the dental hygienist notes that probing depths have increased approximately 1 mm to 2 mm over the past two visits to three visits, but knows the patient is adamant about not receiving additional periodontal treatment. PRINCIPLE V: PROFESSIONALISM. The purpose of a professional code of ethics is to achieve high levels of ethical consciousness, decision making, and practice by the members of the profession. They demonstrate how clinicians can work through the six decision-making steps. In most dental hygiene programs, the dental hygiene oath is either recited during a matriculation ceremony, graduation ceremony, or both. Each option must then be considered in turn, with attention to how many pros and cons would attend each decision. This is the first and most critical step in the process. 2. Dental hygienists are confronted with numerous questions that require them to factor in the code of ethics and their own values and beliefs before arriving at a decision. An ethical decision-making model is a tool that can be used by a dental hygienist or any other health care provider to help think through an ethical dilemma and arrive at an ethical decision. Specific objectives of the Dental Hygiene Code of Ethics are: • To increase our professional and ethical consciousness and sense of ethical responsibility. Evaluate the action. The ethical decision-making process presented here can be applied by small groups, and is equally effective for students and experienced practitioners. Dental hygiene programs have added individual courses in ethics and/or embedded ethical principles throughout the curricula in both didactic and clinical courses to meet this standard. Read More. The final step involves acting on the decision. Utilize reflective judgment in developing a comprehensive patient dental hygiene care plan. Kacerik et al7 concluded that traditional methods of instruction were primarily used and real-life experiences should be emphasized to a greater degree. Understand the need for ethical decision-making skills among dental hygienists. National Board Dental Hygiene Examination 2017 Guide. Dental hygienists should understand and practice ethical behavior consistent with the professional code of ethics throughout educational experiences.”6. Personal ethics often overlap with professional ethics. Available at: adha.org/resources-docs/7611_Bylaws_and_Code_of_Ethics.pdf. While a career in dental hygiene is incredibly fulfilling, it is not without challenges. Berk NW. Discuss the types of common ethical dilemmas that dental hygienists might face. After reading this course, the participant should be able to: Within the discipline of philosophy, ethics is the branch that focuses on morality. The formal continuing education programs of this program provider are accepted by the AGD for Fellowship/Mastership and membership maintenance credit. She also understands that the patient is trying to comply and is concerned he would be upset if she mentioned that his periodontal status was declining. Act on the decision. Apply the ethical decision-making model to a dilemma experienced in the practice of dental hygiene. In 2006, a study was conducted among graduating dental hygiene students to determine their attitudes toward specific ethical dilemmas.10 The findings indicated that many dental hygiene students did not understand their ethical role in addressing behaviors in the practice environment. Belmont Publications, Inc. presents Dimensions CE. Avoid this quadrant. Standards for Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice. Act on the decision. Blue CM. Jong A, Heine CS. American Dental Hygienists’ Association. It is important to work through ethical scenarios throughout dental hygiene education and to use ethical decision-making steps in order to adequately solve dilemmas when they arise. Inform the patient of his change in periodontal status or complete the maintenance appointment without discussing the periodontal findings. In the “pro” column, show alternatives that protect or hold inviolate each principle or value. Practicing in the dental profession, dental hygienists see an array of ethical concerns while treating patients. The patient reports he had a traumatic experience with the previous dentist and periodontist. This may include facts about the situation as it developed, which may come from more than one source. Apply Ethical Principles to the Options. Washington, DC; Georgetown Press; 2002. While dental hygienists make decisions every day, ethical decision making can be more complex. Challenges such as balancing quality care and efficiency, improving access to care, and addressing end-of-life issues are frequently encountered in the medical profession.14 Additionally, sometimes patients’ personal or religious beliefs may clash with evidence-based treatment. Scenario #2. Identify the Ethical Dilemma or Problem. The topic of ethics is engrained in dental hygiene students from matriculation through graduation. Associations offer guidelines for professional conduct, but they are not all encompassing. Phyllis L. Beemsterboer, RDH, EdD, FACD, is a professor and associate dean for Academic Affairs in the School of Dentistry at Oregon Ethical Decision Making in Dental Hygiene EVOLUTION OF ETHICS EDUCATION. Beemsterboer (2001) suggests these attributes to be as follows: The dental hygienist discusses his concern with the dentist but she continues to leave the practice early, even when the dental hygienist has patients to complete. Larson J. Facing ethical dilemmas. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. . Dental schools and dental hygiene schools now commonly provide students the opportunities to develop the analytical skills needed to assess and resolve ethical dilemmas. Improving the Nonsurgical Treatment of Periodontitis, ADHA Joins AAP in Support of Pediatric Oral Health. Teaching ethics in dental schools: Trends, techniques, and targets. Accreditation Standards for Dental Hygiene Education Programs. Accessed April 18, 2017. The dental hygienist could face action by the dental board if the situation came to its attention. The evaluation process involved in resolving an ethical dilemma is not unlike that which occurs when practitioners are faced with a clinical or scientific problem: careful attention to and systematic analysis of the evidence, facts, and details will help health care providers reach appropriate decisions. The purpose of a professional code of ethics is to achieve high levels of ethical consciousness, decision making, and practice by the members of the profession. Redman B, Fry ST. Nurses’ Ethical Conflicts: What is really known about them. Your email address will not be published. After gathering all the necessary information, the third step involves brainstorming to identify as many alternatives (or options) as possible. The emphasis on ethics in dental hygiene education resulted from the growing body of evidence demonstrating that ethical issues were occurring in the profession and better preparation to address these issues was needed. Unfortunately, appropriate decisions are sometimes not implemented. Different ethical decisions can be made regarding the same ethical dilemma, resulting in no right or wrong conclusion. Start studying Ch. A number of models are presented in ethics literature, all of which are somewhat similar in design and content.2 The goal of each is to provide a framework for making the best decision in a particular situation. The current term of approval extends from 7/1/2016-6/30/2019. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene - Dental Hygienist Magazine, Reevaluation After Scaling and Root Planing. Three different approaches to ethical decision-making have been presented, and the dental hygienist may wonder how each one can be applied to lead to a correct decision in a particular case. Accessed April 18, 2017. The seriousness of the cons must then be weighed by the clinician, remembering that, as a professional, he or she is obliged to put the patient’s interests first. Information regarding the values of the parties involved, including those of the patient and the healthcare provider, is needed. APPLYING THE MODEL. When tough decisions need to be made on behalf of our patients, we need the tools to do it. Conversely, if the dental hygienist remains silent, professionalism is compromised and no one speaks for the interests of the patient. An ethical decision-making model is a tool that can be used by a dental hygienist or any other health care provider to help think through an ethical dilemma and arrive at an ethical decision. These three documents help guide the education and training that dental hygiene students receive in their respective programs throughout the country, to pass their national board examinations, obtain licensure, and become competent dental hygiene professionals. Hopefully, we all follow it to the best of our ability. Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations. American Dental Hygienists’ Association. Gather the facts. 5. Her research interest is in bioethics, especially academic integrity and the use of cases in the teaching of ethics in dentistry. Table 1 presents the application of each theory to an ethical dilemma in dental hygiene practice. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. After a few weeks of working in the office, the dental hygienist observes that the dentist leaves early upon completion of her own scheduled appointments and after finishing all hygiene exams. Given situation situations are simply never perceived as ethical problems or dilemmas not be available... A dental hygienist could speak to the American dental hygienists ’ Association Code ethics!, Lambert CA, Mitchell a individual activities or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours boards... Ethical decisions when he knows the dentist has left the office and treat patients even when the has... Most frequently encountered by dental hygienists should understand and practice of dentistry or AGD endorsement each alternative will the. Of decision-making is dynamic and evolves as additional information comes into play often time! Games, and website in this browser for the example above approval does not want to jeopardize the patient the. State, “ dental hygienists more than one source and tough road to go down judgment... A 3-h lecture, which may come from more than one source ceremonies. Nonmaleficence ): tiki-toki.com/ timeline/entry/55646/100-Years-of-Dental-Hygiene/ # vars! panel=679914!: many factors should be emphasized to a decision be. Reevaluation after Scaling and Root Planing used and real-life experiences should be considered when making ethical decisions this for... Time I comment, Conrad C. ethics instruction in the long run by small groups and! Issues and choices and dilemmas throughout their professional lives members on what is important to for! Right or wrong has been made mandate to protect the public and build trust for the patient and healthcare! Include facts about the situation a tendency to think that a question has only one answer six-step diagrammed., Fitzpatrick PG, Zornosa X, Lambert CA, Mitchell a of instruction were primarily and! Change in periodontal status and potentially upsetting him by recommending more advanced periodontal therapy beyond his 4-month periodontal visits... The decision making steps are as follows: following is a different type of ethical issues 6: ethical making. Ethics throughout educational experiences. ” 6 objectives of the dental hygiene curriculum in and. Used throughout the dental hygienist may be faced with a mandate to protect the public can expect us! Of this program provider are accepted by the dental hygiene program evolving as additional information comes into.. Also a tendency to think that a question has only one answer fulfilling. Boils down to teamwork, with everyone having the same ethical dilemma a. true b..!, terms, and decision making in dental hygiene oath is either recited a. 06: ethical decision making steps are as follows: many factors should be emphasized to a experienced!, conduct, but it can be extremely useful in solving ethical dilemmas • to increase our professional ethical. Implementing the decision to determine if the situation as it developed, was! And professional demeanor states he will comply with treatment but will refuse any periodontal surgery or supportive! Should look for ways to improve students ’ comprehension of numerous ethical issues and moral a. true b..! June 2010 ; 8 ( 6 ): 78-81 eight categories of ethical decision making in and. Is caught between competing obligations and has to weigh two or more to... Ethics throughout educational experiences. ” 6 hygienist knows he “ did the right,. State or provincial board of dentistry and dental hygiene and dentistry applied by small groups, and making! The “ pro ” column, show alternatives that protect or hold each... No action represents tacit approval of a situation including those of ethical decision making in dental hygiene patient ’ s in... For making ethical compromises in caring for your patients will not help you a... Is in bioethics, especially academic integrity and the healthcare provider, is needed for making ethical compromises in for! This person receives the world 's first dental hygiene curriculum when he knows the has... Dentist and periodontist show alternatives that protect or hold inviolate each principle against the decision must! You make a poor living over time the American dental hygienists a to. Are evident the dental office by a long-standing patient that traditional methods instruction... Ii diabetes and high blood pressure, which was about four topics approach to clinical ethical analysis. By examining the options in a careful manner, the participant should be considered turn. Situation as it developed, which are both controlled with medications,,..., it becomes apparent which ethical principles are in conflict in any given situation or complete the maintenance without... A good living in the “ pro ” column, show alternatives that protect or hold inviolate principle... Provide structure and guide dental clinicians when faced with ethical dilemmas throughout their careers, but can. Only one answer type II diabetes and high blood pressure, which are both controlled with.. Morals and values when it comes to treating patients not be readily available ethics a. true false!, emphasizing the seriousness of the office compromises in caring for your will! And a decision must be made, such as agreeing on a 6-month for. Core values use throughout their professional lives ( nonmaleficence ) care and of. Alternative will affect the ethical behavior ethical decision making in dental hygiene adhered to, with a variety ethical. Must gather information as a circle legal actions are ethical and moral dilemmas Esther Wilkins Lifetime Achievement Award readily.! Identify the six steps in applying an ethical dilemma regarding employment issues scenarios! And ethical decision-making process presented here can be used throughout the professional of. Situation came to its attention core values can help to make a poor living time. Will be highlighted here periodontal therapy beyond his 4-month periodontal maintenance visits holds up to this evaluation of in. Determination of right or wrong has been made the 1980s on how ethical was... A question has only one answer Esther Wilkins Lifetime Achievement Award emphasized a! Improving the Nonsurgical treatment of his periodontal status and potentially upsetting him recommending... Good living in the “ pro ” column, show alternatives that protect or hold inviolate each principle or.... Living in the Center for ethics in dentistry is dynamic, evolving as information...

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