rhythm All the patterns of strong and weak syllables in a language. which qualify them. The major direction in linguistics up until the advent of structuralism at the beginning of the 20th century. labio-velar Describes a consonant which is articulated by a constriction at the velum with rounding of the lips at the same time, e.g. She cut the cake with a knife. is used outside of school (Gottlieb & Slavit-Ernst, 2014). semantic field A collective term for sets of meanings which are taken to belong together, e.g. Many linguists are divided on this issue, one extreme claiming that this requirement of a theory is not necessary, other saying that it is the ultimate test of any respectable theory. This can be a recognisable part of a word as with lexical compounds or it can be a phrase in a sentence as indicated in tree representations in phrase structure grammar. intonation, stress, tempo, etc. internal reconstruction One of the two major procedures of historical linguistics in which evidence from the internal development of a language is used in reconstructing earlier stages of the language. Sociolinguistics In particular the successful explanation of many instances of language change helped to establish sociolinguistics as an independent sub-discipline in linguistics and led to a great impetus for research in this area. This view was propounded in the 19th century by German linguists starting from Leipzig. polysynthetic A reference to a language which has large complex words in which several grammatical categories are fused together. K | presupposition Any information which is taken for granted in a discourse situation, for instance the sentence Did you enjoy your breakfast? This may happen on an individual level (during second language learning, for example) or collectively in which case it often leads to language change. A morpheme is an abstract unit and is realised by a morph; it is the approximate equivalent of a phoneme on the level of phonology. linguistics The study of language. degree A relational specification which is found with adjectives and adverbs. A stop actually consists of two phases: closure (when air pressure builds up) and release (when air explodes out). (imperative). nouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions. The causes of this range from invasion and deportation to voluntary emigration to a new country. Psycholinguistics This has become a discipline in its own right since the pioneering work of Austin in the early 1960's. Semantics is the study of meaning in language. subject The consituent of a clause which is the primary complement of the verb and about which something is said, e.g. There are, however, many instances in which case requirements are not semantically motivated, e.g. structure A network of connections between elements of a system, for instance syllable structure is the set of relations which exist between parts of a syllable. The English word hussey is a reduced form of 'housewife' and because of loss of transparency underwent a semantic shift to 'unpleasant woman' with the transparent housewife being re-introduced into the language. family tree A model of language development common in the last century (the term derives from August Schleicher) which sees languages as splitting further in a manner reminiscent of genetic relationships. In addition there are usually means of negating an entire sentence Not all the students took their exams in June. Such a method must take regular sound changes and later analogy into account. This is particularly common in English today, e.g. vernacular The indigenous language or dialect of a community. honorific A specific use of language to express deference in a social context. The Indo-European languages have negation particles beginning in /n-/ which are normally positioned adjacent to the verb to negate it, Er kam nicht; He didn't come. In a wider sense, phonology could be said to subsume phonetics as its 'surface' aspect. accent 1) Strictly speaking this refers to the pronunciation of a dialect, i.e. For this reason new languages, like pidgins and creoles, are never synthetic in type. ellipsis A technical term for leaving out words in sentences. place of articulation The point in the vocal tract at which a sound is produced. Language typology It contrasts with the term suprasegmental which refers to those aspects of phonetic structure above the level of individual sounds. For this reason new languages, like pidgins and creoles, are never synthetic in type. Figurative usage is the source of the second meaning of polysemous words. In the sentence I had finished my coursework before John came home, had finished is indicative in meaning, showing that the action was completed in the past before John came home. opaque A term referring to any form or process which cannot be spontaneously understood by lay speakers. Frequently a borrowing but not necessarily so. rhetoric The technique of speaking effectively in public. Adjectives can themselves be qualified by adverbs (as in the example just given). areas of linguistics Any of a number of areas of study in which linguistic insights have been brought to bear, for instance sociolinguistics in which scholars study society and the way language is used in it. unmarked A reference to any linguistic form which is the most general and least specific of its kind. The grounds for such differentiation may be social, historical, spatial or a combination of these. typology The description of the grammatical structure of language independently of genetic relationships. It is important to note that the two symbols represent a SINGLE phone. It is usually used synonymously with root. grammaticalisation This is an historical process in language which refers to a change in status from lexical to grammatical for certain elements, frequently due to semantic bleaching (loss of lexical meaning). However, the two 't sounds' are not quite the same: the tongue is further back in the mouth when pronouncing the [t] in [tri] than when pronouncing the [t] in [ti]. The 't sound' in English is an alveolar stop, produced by stopping and then releasing the air flow out of the mouth by closing the tongue onto the tooth ridge. For example, in Spanish the combination ll represents a different sound from a single l. Thus these are two graphemes. It contrasts with nativism which assumes that knowledge of language is innate, the view behind the generative grammar view of language acquisition. In many languages, including English, derivational morphology is unpredictable, and so cannot easily be handled by rules. approximant An approximant is a phone in which the tongue partly closes the airway, but not enough to cause a fricative. pidgin A language which arises from the need to communicate between two communities. labio-velar Describes a consonant which is articulated by a constriction at the velum with rounding of the lips at the same time, e.g. attributive An adjective which is placed before a noun and specifies a quality as in His beautiful wife. phonetic A reference to a phenomenon in the area of phonetics (often as opposed to phonology). the Balkans, the Caucasus, perhaps the eastern Baltic Sea region. For instance one could say that /di:b/ is the underlying representation for German 'thief' and that the surface form [di:p] arises through the application of an automatic rule of final devoicing. Frequently a borrowing but not necessarily so. internal reconstruction One of the two major procedures of historical linguistics in which evidence from the internal development of a language is used in reconstructing earlier stages of the language. labial A reference to a sound which is formed at the lips; this encompasses both bilabials like /p, m/ and labio-dentals like /f, v/. In the course of the 19th century it developed into a sociolect, particularly when adopted by the public schools, and attained a wide distribution in Wales and Scotland as well. the lowering of short /u/ in the Early Modern English period which does not apply to instances before [ʃ] and after a labial stop: bush, push. [bəʊt] for boat. by lacking a finite verb, but which are regarded as forming a unit grammatically. These are usually grouped into word fields so that the vocabulary can be said to show an internal structure. This type is generally taken as more basic than a passive sentence. This can vary depending on the situation in which we find ourselves. the different inflectional forms of verbs contrast in both English and German. first language The language which is acquired initially by a child and which is his/her native language. language acquisition The process by which children acquire knowledge about their native language in their early childhood. In English, the grammatical voice of a verb is closely related to its meaning. For example, There's a man at the door -- the word a introduces a man into the conversation. The causes of this range from invasion and deportation to voluntary emigration to a new country. Although some writers on language had recognised the importance of social factors in linguistic behaviour it was not until the 1960's with the seminal work of Labov that the attention of large numbers of linguists was focussed on language use in a social context. Other examples are psycholinguistics which is concerned with the psychological and linguistic development of the child. where a feature in a present-day dialect is taken to derive from both substrate interference and language-internal developments. This process is called anaphora. The context-sensitive rules which determine this are called phonological rules. nasal A sound, vowel or consonant, which is produced by opening the nasal cavity (through lowering of the velum). This type contrasts with analytic and can be taken to have developed historically from the latter through centuries of change during which words fused together to give compound forms. This is an independent level and has several subtypes, such as word, grammatical, sentence and utterance meaning. He is interested in philosophy. The most famous corpus for historical forms of English is the Helsinki Corpus of English. It may be a standard form of a language or a different language from that found natively in a specific country or region. grammatical A term which refers to whether a sentence, phrase or form is judged by native speakers to be well-formed in their language. /j/ and /w/ in English. The set of inflectional forms of a verb is termed a conjugation (parallel to declension with nouns). Such sounds can either be stops [ʔ] or fricatives [h, ɦ] — voiceless and voiced respectively. Former transparent compounds may change in the course of time. grammaticalisation This is an historical process in language which refers to a change in status from lexical to grammatical for certain elements, frequently due to semantic bleaching (loss of lexical meaning). law A formulation of an ordered or predictable relationship between forms. Genitive is an alternative word for possessive, i.e. girlfriend from girl and friend, teabreak from tea and break. slot Any point in a syntagm — a linear structure such as a phrase or sentence — which can be occupied by a class of items such as a noun or verb. Some adverbs can qualify a clause or an entire sentence as in Surprisingly, John left for home. A lexeme subsumes a set of forms which are related semantically, e.g. convention An agreement, usually reached unconsciously by speakers in a community, that relationships are to apply between linguistic items, between these and the outside world or to apply in the use of rules in the grammar of their language. variety A term used to refer to any variant of a language which can be sufficiently delimited from another variant. /j/ and /w/ in English. Nonterminals are symbols used only in the grammar itself. If exposure to a language begins considerably later then acquisition rarely results in native-like competence. Sociolinguistics is the study of how language is used in society. predicative A reference to an adjective which occurs after a form of the copula be instead of before the noun it qualifies. ; in short all the 'grammatical' or structural aspects of the sound level. German vorder in Ein vorderer Vokal which cannot occur as a predicative adjective: *Dieser Vokal ist vorder. Whitehall for the English parliament, Paris for the French government, The White House for the American administration.
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