maria antonia of austria

The main actors in the scandal were Cardinal de Rohan, prince de Rohan-Guéméné, Great Almoner of France, and Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, Comtesse de La Motte, a descendant of an illegitimate child of Henry II of France of the House of Valois. Although both of her parents were observant Catholics, they found Maria Antonia's religious fervor worrisome particularly because her sister Assunta followed Maria Antonia's lead. Mirabeau sincerely wanted to reconcile the queen with the people, and she was happy to see him restoring much of the king's powers, such as his authority over foreign policy, and the right to declare war. For instance, a writing table attributed to Riesener, now located at Waddesdon Manor, bears witness to Marie-Antoinette's desire to escape the oppressive formality of court life, when she decided to move the table from the Queen's boudoir de la Meridienne at Versailles to her humble interior, the Petit Trianon. Maria Antonia of Austria (Maria Antonia Theresia Josefa ; 18 January 1669 – 24 December 1692) was the eldest daughter and only surviving child of Emperor Leopold I and Margaret Theresa of Spain. Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd. [67], France's financial problems were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars; a large royal family whose expenditures were paid for by the state; and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy, and clergy, to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges. In an elaborate attempt known as the Flight to Varennes to reach the royalist stronghold of Montmédy, some members of the royal family were to pose as the servants of an imaginary "Mme de Korff", a wealthy Russian baroness, a role played by Louise-Élisabeth de Croÿ de Tourzel, governess of the royal children. They had no issue. Biografía María Antonia era hija del emperador Leopoldo I y de su sobrina y primera esposa, la infanta Margarita Teresa de España.Sus abuelos paternos eran Fernando III, Sacro Emperador Romano Germánico y María Ana de España, mientras que sus abuelos maternos eran Felipe IV de España y Mariana de Austria. [69] Her third pregnancy was affirmed in March 1781, and on 22 October she gave birth to Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France. This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April 1792, which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August 1792, which ended the monarchy. His title was bestowed by his royalist supporters and acknowledged implicitly by his uncle's later adoption of the regnal name Louis XVIII rather than Louis XVII, upon the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814. This incident fortified her in her determination to leave Paris for personal and political reasons, not alone, but with her family. When the affair was discovered, those involved (except de La Motte and Rétaux de Villette, who both managed to flee) were arrested, tried, convicted, and either imprisoned or exiled. The prestige of the French monarchy had never been at such a low level. [3][4] Maria Antonia was born on All Souls Day, a Catholic day of mourning, and during her childhood her birthday was instead celebrated the day before, on All Saint's Day, due to the connotations of the date. Four guards accompanied the queen wherever she went, and her bedroom door had to be left open at night. His relationship with the king was more cordial. [197][198], Early on 16 October, Marie Antoinette was declared guilty of the three main charges against her: depletion of the national treasury, conspiracy against the internal and external security of the State, and high treason because of her intelligence activities in the interest of the enemy; the latter charge alone was enough to condemn her to death. Archduchess Maria Antonia wished to become a nun, but her mother thought that Maria Antonia had neither the necessary vocation nor the temperament to follow a religious life. [31][32] The queen did play a decisive role in the disgrace and exile of the most powerful of Louis XV's ministers, the duc d'Aiguillon. September 2020. While Barnave's faction had dropped to 120 members, the new Girondin majority controlled the legislative assembly with 330 members. In consequence, the queen asked Fersen to urge the foreign powers to carry out their plans to invade France and to issue a manifesto in which they threatened to destroy Paris if anything happened to the royal family. There were and still claims that the two were romantically involved,[80] but since most of their correspondence has been lost or destroyed, there is no conclusive evidence. Find out information about Maria Antonia of Austria. She and her court also adopted the English fashion of dresses made of indienne (a material banned in France from 1686 until 1759 to protect local French woolen and silk industries), percale and muslin. Genealogy for Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria, Queen consort of France (1755 - 1793) family tree on Geni, with over 200 … Transferred to the La Force prison, after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. 1755-1793. Media in category "Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (Joseph Ducreux - Versailles)" The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. A widow with five children Archduchess Maria Antonia, as the widow de Orlandis, emigrated to South America. [52] Marie Antoinette's daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale, was born at Versailles on 19 December 1778. In 1919, after the fall of the Austro Hungary Empire, she moved with her family to Spain. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities. A significant achievement of Marie Antoinette in that period was the establishment of an alliance with Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, the most important lawmaker in the assembly. His father had lost his title when he failed to pay the taxes of nobility. [140], Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children. [158][159], Upon learning of the capture of the royal family, the National Constituent Assembly sent three representatives, Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve and Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg to Varennes to escort Marie Antoinette and her family back to Paris. [220] Her life has been the subject of many films, such as the 2006 film Marie Antoinette. The Brunswick Manifesto, issued on 25 July 1792, triggered the events of 10 August[178] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the royal family to take refuge at the Assembly, and they were imprisoned in the Temple Prison on 13 August. Je ne l’ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose", after accidentally stepping on her executioner's shoe. Marie-Antoinette: The Making of a French Queen by John Hardman Book Review January 12, 2020 Moniek 2. Throughout her life she received an outstanding education, particularly in the arts (including painting, writing poetry, as well as music). The "Carnation Plot" (Le complot de l'œillet), an attempt to help her escape at the end of August, was foiled due to the inability to corrupt all the guards. Queen of France as the wife of Louis XVI. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. [146][147] At the meeting, Mirabeau was much impressed by the queen, and remarked in a letter to Auguste Marie Raymond d'Arenberg, Comte de la Marck, that she was the only person the king had by him: La Reine est le seul homme que le Roi ait auprès de Lui. We do not sell mass-produced goods, but produce custom-made masterpieces with love of detail. She was a writer, and published works in … Unlike her husband, who had been taken to his execution in a carriage (carrosse), she had to sit in an open cart (charrette) for the hour it took to convey her from the Conciergerie via the rue Saint-Honoré thoroughfare to reach the guillotine erected in the Place de la Révolution (the present-day Place de la Concorde). [56] Courtiers at Versailles noted in their diaries that the date of the child's conception in fact corresponded perfectly with a period when the king and the queen had spent much time together, but these details were ignored amid attacks on the queen's character. Despite her attempts to remain out of the public eye, Marie Antoinette was falsely accused in the libelles of having an affair with Lafayette, whom she loathed,[145] and, as was published in Le Godmiché Royal ("The Royal Dildo"), and of having a sexual relationship with the English baroness Lady Sophie Farrell of Bournemouth, a well-known lesbian of the time. Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day 1772. Buy Portrait of Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria 1755-1793, the later Queen Marie Antoinette of Fr from Joseph Ducreux as the highest quality art print to your liking. In fact, the design was copied from that of the prince de Condé. Name variations: Maria Antonia Walpurgis; (pseudonym) ETPA (Ermelinda Talea Pastorella Arcada). ‘Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria’ was created in 1769 by Joseph Ducreux in Rococo style. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (1899–1977), Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies, Archduke Leopold Salvator, Prince of Tuscany, Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania, Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine, Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate, Maria Clementina, Hereditary Princess of Naples, Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Karoline Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Elisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz, Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio, Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria, Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria, Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Immaculata, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri, Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein,–1977)&oldid=974684969, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 13. [50] Nevertheless, following Joseph's intervention, the marriage was finally consummated in August 1777. [citation needed] Upon Leopold's death in 1792, his son, Francis, a conservative ruler, was ready to support the cause of the French royal couple more vigorously because he feared the consequences of the French Revolution and its ideas for the monarchies of Europe, particularly, for Austria's influence in the continent. "[191] This was the most difficult period of her captivity. [219], In the United States, expressions of gratitude to France for its help in the American Revolution included naming a city Marietta, Ohio in 1788. (#710466) Gabriella Maria Pilar Yolande Joséphine-Charlotte, 26, tied the knot with Prince Henri, 28, on Saturday at the fairytale castle of Tratzberg in Jenbach, Austria. Her favourite objects filled her small, private chateau and reveal aspects of Marie-Antoinette's character that have been obscured by satirical political prints, such as those in Les Tableaux de la Révolution. Maria Antonia de Austria (Maria Antonia Theresia Josefa; 18 ianuarie 1669 – 24 decembrie 1692) a fost fiica cea mare și singurul copil care a supraviețuit al împăratului romano-german Leopold I și a primei lui soții, Margarita Teresa a Spaniei. Archduchess Maria Antonia quickly left behind her intentions to become a nun. [193][194], Marie Antoinette was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October 1793. Maria Antonia of Austria Collection by Holli Hensley 77 Pins • 304 Followers Also known as Marie Antoinette. Died in childhood on the very day the Estates General convened. Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria synonyms, Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria pronunciation, Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria translation, English dictionary definition of Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria. Find out about Don Ramon Orlandis y Villalonga & Archduchess Maria Antonia Of Austria Married, children, joint family tree & history, ancestors and ancestry. She was tried and executed during the French Revolution. (1868–1949). "[49], Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis, which was relieved by circumcision, have been discredited. Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (Maria Antonia Leopoldina Annunciata Anna Amalia Josepha Johanna Thelka; 10 January 1858 – 13 April 1883) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.She served as the Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Royal and Imperial Convent in Hradčany from 1881 until her death in 1883. The primary motive for the queen's involvement in political affairs in this period may arguably have more to do with court factionalism than any true interest on her part in politics themselves,[65] but she played an important role in aiding the American Revolution by securing Austrian and Russian support for France, which resulted in the establishment of a neutral league that stopped Great Britain's attack, and by weighing indecisively for the nomination of Philippe Henri, marquis de Ségur as Minister of War and Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, marquis de Castries as Secretary of the Navy in 1780, who helped George Washington to defeat the British in the American Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. She was member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg, an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany by birth. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. Archduchess Maria Antonia was nineteen years old at the fall of Habsburg monarchy. She put on a plain white dress, white being the color worn by widowed queens of France. Maria Antonia (in francese Marie-Antoinette, 2 novembre 1755 – 16 octobre 1793), nasceva Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, esseva le final regina de Francia ante le revolution francese. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. The letter did not reach Élisabeth. Over the objections of Lafayette and his allies, the king was given a suspensive veto allowing him to veto any laws for a period of four years. [202][203], Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June 1791, but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week. On the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable, and well-liked by the common people. The two strongest members of that government were Jean Marie Roland, who was minister of interior, and General Dumouriez, the minister of foreign affairs. [141] She also played an important political, albeit not public, role between 1789 and 1791 when she had a complex set of relationships with several key actors of the early period of the French Revolution. Find more prominent pieces of portrait at – best visual art database. Find out information about Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria. Illa esseva le filia de Maria Theresa, Imperatrice de Austria e Francesco I, Sacre Imperator Roman.. He was never officially king, nor did he rule. To make her reflect on her decision Maria Antonia's parents took her to the Island of Mallorca. Politically engaged authors have deemed her the quintessential representative of class conflict, western aristocracy and absolutism. It was proposed that the cost could be covered by other sales, such as that of the château Trompette in Bordeaux. Barnave and the moderates comprised about 260 lawmakers in the new Legislative Assembly; the radicals numbered around 136, and the rest around 350. She became Electress of Bavaria in 1685, but ruled for only seven years before her premature death in 1692. Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. 1755-1793. [84], In 1783, the queen was busy with the creation of her "hamlet", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique, according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert. He began to institute more cutbacks at court while trying to restore the royal absolute power weakened by parliament. Looking for Maria Antonia of Austria? Maria An­to­nia of Austria (Maria An­to­nia Josepha Bene­dicta Ros­alia Petronella; 18 Jan­u­ary 1669 – 24 De­cem­ber 1692) was an Elec­tress of Bavaria by mar­riage to Max­i­m­il­ian II Emanuel, Elec­tor of Bavaria. Her parents were Empress Maria Theresa and Franz I, Holy Roman Emperor. [citation needed] The result of these two nominations was that Marie Antoinette's influence became paramount in government, and the new ministers rejected any major change to the structure of the old regime. [118] The May Edicts issued on 8 May 1788 were also opposed by the public and parliament. Others involved were Nicole Lequay, alias Baronne d'Oliva, a prostitute who happened to look like Marie Antoinette; Rétaux de Villette, a forger; Alessandro Cagliostro, an Italian adventurer; and the Comte de La Motte, Jeanne de Valois' husband. While imprisoned in the Tower of the Temple, Marie Antoinette, her children, and Élisabeth were insulted, some of the guards going as far as blowing smoke in the ex-queen's face. A second daughter, her last child, Marie Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Madame Sophie, was born on 9 July 1786 and lived only eleven months until 19 June 1787. [6] Maria Antonia had a difficult but ultimately loving relationship with her mother,[7] who referred to her as "the little Madame Antoine". In 1774, she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, who remained in France until 1779. Mar 3, 2013 - Also known as Marie Antoinette. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in 1792. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. [121][122], On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. See more ideas about Marie antoinette, Marie antionette, French history. Marie Antoinette, whose life was as much in danger, remained with the king, whose power was gradually being taken away by the National Constituent Assembly. Furthermore, her execution was seen as a sign that the revolution had done its work. [138][139] Despite these dramatic changes, life at the court continued, while the situation in Paris was becoming critical because of bread shortages in September. It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation. The Assembly then passed a series of laws concerning the Church, the aristocracy, and the formation of new national guard units; all were vetoed by Louis XVI. [66], In 1783, the queen played a decisive role in the nomination of Charles Alexandre de Calonne, a close friend of the Polignacs, as Controller-General of Finances, and of the baron de Breteuil as the Minister of the Royal Household, making him perhaps the strongest and most conservative minister of the reign. [16][17] The couple's longtime failure to consummate the marriage plagued the reputations of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the next seven years. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat. Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria was born on 13 July 1899 at Zagreb, then part of Austria-Hungary. After the death of her brother Joseph in 1790, his successor, Leopold, was willing to support her to a limited degree. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she became queen. She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice. More than that, the decree by de Ségur, the minister of war, requiring four quarterings of nobility as a condition for the appointment of officers, blocked the access of commoners to important positions in the armed forces, challenging the concept of equality, one of the main grievances and causes of the French Revolution.[67][68]. [176] In August 1791, the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened an invasion of France. This page was last edited on 24 August 2020, at 11:54. She was member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg-Lorraine, an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany by birth. [190], On the night of 1 August, at 1:00 in the morning, Marie Antoinette was transferred from the Temple to an isolated cell in the Conciergerie as 'Prisoner n° 280'. English: Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (1899-1977) 日付 1913年 原典 Published as a postcard in Europe. [86][87] However, the hamlet was not an eccentricity of Marie Antoinette's. [200] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. [223] Armand and Zoe had a position which was more similar to that of Ernestine; Armand lived at court with the king and queen until he left them at the outbreak of the revolution because of his republican sympathies, and Zoe was chosen to be the playmate of the Dauphin, just as Ernestine had once been selected as the playmate of Marie-Therese, and sent away to her sisters in a convent boarding school before the Flight to Varennes in 1791. This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead of appealing to all mothers present in the room; their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. [212], For many revolutionary figures, Marie Antoinette was the symbol of what was wrong with the old regime in France. English: Maria Antonia of Austria, (November 2 1755 – October 16 1793) better known as Marie Antoinette (/maʀi ɑ̃twanɛt/), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France and Navarre. While Maria Antonia's three elder sisters Archduchess Dolores, Inmaculata and Margareta were pliable, Archduchesses Maria Antonia and her younger sister Assunta were more rebellious and clashed often with their mother, Infanta Blanca. Maria Antonia of Austria, princess of Tuscany as Abbess.jpg 2,008 × 3,456; 1.53 MB Maria Antonia, Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany.jpg 611 × 849; 328 KB Marie Antoinette von Österreich-Toskana.jpg 956 × 1,311; 861 KB On 15 January 1793, by a majority of one vote, that of Philippe Égalité, he was condemned to death by guillotine and executed on 21 January 1793. Once Louis XVI finally did commit to a plan, its poor execution was the cause of its failure. Barnave remained the most important advisor and supporter of the queen, who was willing to work with him as long as he met her demands, which he did to a large extent. By the end of May, the Girondins had been chased from power. The royalists and the refractory clergy, including those preparing the insurrection in Vendée, supported Marie Antoinette and the return to the monarchy. Even the king, who had been hesitant, accepted his wife's decision to flee with the help of foreign powers and counter-revolutionary forces. He even went as far as exiling the Duke of Orléans, who was accused by the queen of fomenting trouble. Archduchess Maria Antonia grew up in the last period of Habsburg monarchy. [207][208] Her last words are recorded as, "Pardonnez-moi, monsieur. [78] De Mercy wrote to the Empress: "It is almost unexampled that in so short a time, the royal favor should have brought such overwhelming advantages to a family".[79]. He sat by her in the cart, but she ignored him all the way to the scaffold. A further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. 1755-1793. Religion played an important role in the life of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, both raised in the Roman Catholic faith. [217], The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie Antoinette, but there is no evidence that she ever uttered it, and it is now generally regarded as a journalistic cliché. [83] Her mother again expressed concern for the safety of her daughter, and she began to use Austria's ambassador to France, comte de Mercy, to provide information on Marie Antoinette's safety and movements. She was under constant surveillance, with no privacy. [218] This phrase originally appeared in Book VI of the first part of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's autobiographical work Les Confessions, finished in 1767 and published in 1782: "Enfin Je me rappelai le pis-aller d'une grande Princesse à qui l'on disait que les paysans n'avaient pas de pain, et qui répondit: Qu'ils mangent de la brioche" ("Finally I recalled the stopgap solution of a great princess who was told that the peasants had no bread, and who responded: 'Let them eat brioche'"). [115][116] Around the same time, Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy escaped from prison and fled to London, where she published damaging slander concerning her supposed amorous affair with the queen. Empress Maria Theresa died on 29 November 1780 in Vienna. The family lost all their fortune. Marie Antoinette feared that the death of her mother would jeopardize the Franco-Austrian alliance (as well as, ultimately, herself), but her brother, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, wrote to her that he had no intention of breaking the alliance. [33][34][35], On 24 May 1774, two weeks after the death of Louis XV, the king gifted his wife the Petit Trianon, a small château on the grounds of Versailles that had been built by Louis XV for his mistress, Madame de Pompadour. Smallpox struck the family hard, and even Maria Theresa herself became ill. [133][134], In the days following the storming of the Bastille, for fear of assassination, and ordered by the king, the emigration of members of the high aristocracy began on 17 July with the departure of the comte d'Artois, the Condés, cousins of the king,[135] and the unpopular Polignacs. The estimated number of those killed varies between 12 and 50. Alfonsina (1936) married in 1981 Joaquín Zaforteza (born 1930). The marriage took place in Barcelona on 16 July 1924. [214] The people of France saw her death as a necessary step toward completing the revolution. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 00:49. The play was a disaster for the image of the monarchy and aristocracy. [37][38] By the time of the Flour War of 1775, a series of riots (due to the high price of flour and bread) had damaged her reputation among the general public. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General, the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since 1614.[119]. [110][111] The Assembly was a failure. [148] An agreement was reached turning Mirabeau into one of her political allies: Marie Antoinette promised to pay him 6000 livres per month and one million if he succeeded in his mission to restore the king's authority. [39] In her correspondence, Marie Antoinette's mother, Maria Theresa, expressed concern over her daughter's spending habits, citing the civil unrest it was beginning to cause.[40]. Of these, only Armand, Ernestine, and Zoe actually lived with the royal family: Jean Amilcar, along with the elder siblings of Zoe and Armand who were also formally foster children of the royal couple, simply lived at the queen's expense until her imprisonment, which proved fatal for at least Amilcar, as he was evicted from the boarding school when the fee was no longer paid, and reportedly starved to death on the street. At least 300,000 persons participated from all over France, including 18,000 national guards, with Talleyrand, bishop of Autun, celebrating a mass at the autel de la Patrie ("altar of the fatherland"). Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (13 July 1899 – 22 October 1977) Media in category "Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (1899–1977)" The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria German: Maria Antonia, Erzherzogin von Österreich-Toskana (13 July 1899 – 22 October 1977) was a daughter of Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria and Infanta Blanca of Spain. She has been the subject of a number of books, films, and other media. Nothing now can hurt me. In 1924 she married Ramón de Orlandis y Villalonga, a Spanish aristocrat. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name: Marie Antoinette. On the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette, as did others who disliked her for more personal or petty reasons.

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