“Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.” Players suffer bruises, lacerations, torn muscles, dislocated shoulders, torn knee ligaments, broken bones, internal organ damage, and, occasionally, even paralysis. It is a form of consequentialism.  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths..  There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. The fact that Governor Scott has chosen to ignore laws that restrict the removal of voters from registration rolls so close to a federal election suggests that this is an attempt to prevent those who have the constitutional right to vote as well as the human right to participate in their government.  Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”. It is in the universal interest of the community to ensure that those who are eligible to vote are permitted to do so. However, the science in this area is truly not settled. Utilitarianism, by John Stuart Mill, is an essay written to provide support for the value of utilitarianism as a moral theory, and to respond to misconceptions about it. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. (1964). Life: The Most Basic Right. The basic content of utilitarian theory is measured in pleasure and pain. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.” No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. 37 37 Vaswani, K. (2020, 19 March).  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). RECENT STATUTE. This is maximizing the “good” and minimizing the “bad” For example it would be fair to torture a person in order to save others. An owner of property holds that property  Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions, but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. The rights theory serves based on positions of justice and rights that consider moral leadership as that which entails just treatment and respect towards individual rights The rights theory of business ethics rests upon the notion that all individuals possess the right towards life and thus they should be treated with the highest respect and dignity required. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015. JUSTICE, UTILITARIANISM, AND RIGHTS 1 John Rawls' A Theory of Justice is reminiscent of a work of Kant's in the painful care with which it is written, in the intri cacy and meticulousness of its arguments, and in the embellish ments it adds to the latest and best in the intellectual tech niques of an era. A documentary and six short videos reveal the behavioral ethics biases in super-lobbyist Jack Abramoff's story. Utilitarian principles often run contrary to individual’s rights, and at times are the antithesis to concepts of modern justice theories. A theory of right action is implicit in Hume’s delineation of the virtues. This theory was developed by Jeremy Bentham and subsequently John Stuart mill. When we are tempted to make a decision that will positively impact the majority, we must also consider the negative impact on the minority. Earlyprecursors to the Classical Utilitarians include the British M… Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020).  Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Some utilitarians, however, have sought to modify the utilitarian theory to accommodate the objections.  Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. The first human rights violation identified is specific to the issue of racial profiling in law enforcement. Dariusz J. Ropiak.  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential moral theories of modern times.  Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014). Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that says that the right thing to do in any situation is whatever will “do the most good” (that is, whatever will produce the best outcomes) taking into consideration the interests of all concerned parties. Here, I want to examine utilitarian arguments for rights in general, with an eye toward the commonly recognized core of human rights. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground. 1. utilitarian approaches. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. Explain. And new knowledge about brain injuries have caused many people to call football immoral and to advocate its abolition. Security rights as defined by Article 3 of the UHDR, are those which protect citizens from crimes against their person. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. What can scientists considering the morality of trading in Myanmar amber learn from the debate over “conflict minerals” in Africa?  Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) initiated the interest theory.  Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). This limits the interest theory’s rights, but this does not solve the will theory’s problems with inalienable rights… No. A system of rules would help with the other objections, however, even if they only serve as convenient advice. There is only one process to focus upon when implementing a society that functions from the foundation of utilitarianism: happiness. Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players. The Utilitarian Theory / Incentive Theory . Sangiorgio, C. (2011). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Commentary on Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights . Utilitarianism is an easy theory to implement.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Myanmar classifies amber as a gemstone, not a fossil, so it can be legally removed from the country, unlike fossils that have restrictions on removal. A political issue? See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. RIGHTS THEORY. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. In particular, Article 7 states that “all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law”, however the statistics provided by the NYCLU clearly suggests that blacks and Latinos are routinely stopped by the NYPD more than whites. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”.  Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Critics of consequentialism or utilitarianism argue that such theories are inconsistent wth the notion that people have rights According to critics of utilitarian or consequentialist theory, in these theories In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012).  Daniel Engber, Concussion Lies, Slate, Dec. 21, 2015, at https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html; Kevin Lomangino, Journalists Drop the Ball on Big Concussion/CTE Story, HEALTHNEWSREVIEW.ORG, Jan. 19, 2018, at https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/;  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019).  Sameer K. Deshpande et al, Association of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life, JAMA Neurology, 74(8): 909-918 (2017).  Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the utilitarian movement in nineteenth century England, accepted the incompatibility of utilitarianism and “the rights of man, ” and rejected talkof the latter as “anarchical fallacies”.  Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded—namely, that pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things (which are as numerous in the utilitarian as in any other scheme) are desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves, or  Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals.  4. Human Rights. Such a cost-benefit analysis should be impartial — In other words, a decision should equally consider the effects on everyone with no special treatment for your friends, family, or self.. A classic example of utilitarian logic is called the Trolley Problem. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes.  Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury….  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman).  Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. Some argue against paternalism and in favor of individual choice, believing that adults (at least) should be able to choose to engage in boxing (and presumably to play football) despite its potentially adverse consequences for brain health. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. Bry believes that this will never happen. Start studying Utilitarianism and rights theory. Its prevalence is unknown, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no more than preliminary. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with. Discuss your reasoning. To see this point more clearly, consider this fact: Your right to life isn’t dependent on whether respecting your life would yield the best set of consequences. Resolution of the voter registration purge would mean that voters in Florida would retain their right to vote, and therefore participate in their government as defined by Article 21 of the UDHR. If the theory is to be truly utilitarian, it must maintain the utility principle as its ultimate standard, and no intermediate rules or rights could stand against it. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. Resolution of the human rights violations discussed can be ranked in accordance with Bentham’s theory of utilitarianism. What this means is misleadingly simple; moral intuition refers to an involuntary sentiment or a gut feeling regarding where something is wrong or right… Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006).  Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. Legislative and Court Decisions that Promulfated Racial Profiling: A Sociohistorical Perspective.  Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019).  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? Utilitarian theory of punishment. Mill himself fought for women's rights, against slavery, and for fair labor practices, which is consistent with his utilitarian convictions.  Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). To prevent and discourage them from engaging in crimes in future Nagasaki is a of! [ 2 ] and to advocate its abolition such as justice and individual rights they... 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